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Human Evolution: Science as a way of knowing DIVERSITY OF LIFE OVER TIME DIVERSITY OF LIFE OVER TIME DIVERSITY OF LIFE: Cenozoic Era Mammalian radiation WHAT IS A MAMMAL? Hair Mammary Glands Dentition PRIMATE EVOLUTION PRIMATE EVOLUTION Human Evolution: Bipedalism

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what is a mammal
WHAT IS A MAMMAL?

Hair

Mammary

Glands

Dentition

human evolution bipedalism
Human Evolution: Bipedalism

Pelvic Girdle & Foot Bones

Foramen magnum

Gluteus maximus

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HOMINID EVOLUTION:

HUMAN ANCESTORS

human evolution dentition
Human Evolution: Dentition

Incisors

Canines

Molars

human phylogeny
HUMAN PHYLOGENY
  • Phylogeny:maps of the evolutionary relationships between species/lineages. Phylogenies help us to understand species extinctions, ancestral and modern species origins, and the points at which lineages split, also known as speciation.
  • Phylogenetics:field of biology that examines the relationships between organisms, and the causes of the evolutionary patterns that are present.
  • Lineage:a general term that refers to a continuous line of descent, or a series of organisms that is connected by reproduction from parent to offspring.
slide15

HOMINID EVOLUTION:

HUMAN ANCESTORS

slide16

HOMINID EVOLUTION:

HUMAN ANCESTORS

slide17

HOMINID EVOLUTION:

HUMAN ANCESTORS

slide18

Human Evolution and

Mitochondrial DNA

Energy-producing organelles

Endosymbiosis?

  • Thousands of mitochondria in each cell, and each
  • one has its own small circle of DNA, separate from nuclear DNA
  • Why special/useful in relation to evolutionary relationships?
  • Unique inheritance pattern
  • Changes more rapidly than nuclear DNA, and high mutation
  • rate means there is plenty of genetic variation among people.