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Health and Safety & Risk Assessment for users of Brunel 007 (W7) - Composites Manufacturing Laboratory. Staff associated with composite modules in W7. academic Stephen Grove John Summerscales technicians Richard Cullen, Greg Nash, Richard Kenyon researchers

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health and safety risk assessment for users of brunel 007 w7 composites manufacturing laboratory

Health and Safety& Risk Assessment for users of Brunel 007 (W7) - Composites Manufacturing Laboratory

staff associated with composite modules in w7
Staff associated with composite modules in W7
  • academic
    • Stephen Grove
    • John Summerscales
  • technicians
    • Richard Cullen, Greg Nash, Richard Kenyon
  • researchers
    • post-doc and research degree candidates
principal material groups
Principal material groups
  • Resins
    • unsaturated polyester (UPE)
    • epoxide/epoxy (Ep)
    • phenolic
  • Thermoplastics
    • polypropylene (PP)
    • nylon (PA: polyamide)
    • polyester (PET: polyethylene terephthalate)
    • poly ether ether ketone (PEEK)
  • Fibres
    • aramid (Kevlar, Twaron)
    • carbon
    • glass (usually E-glass)
  • Solvents, release agents, etc
health and safety
Health and Safety
  • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)
    • can you substitute a safer material
    • can you use an engineering solution
    • are you using appropriate personal protection
  • Environmental Protection Act
    • you must dispose of materials in the correct manner
  • A clean and tidy workplace is a safer workplace
    • if you are not using it put it away
    • if you must leave anything out, make sure it is clearly labelled
health and safety unsaturated polyester resin upe
Health and Safety: Unsaturated PolyEster resin (UPE)
  • base resin: polymer chains with reactive sites (50%)
  • styrene: reactive diluent (50%)
    • volatile
    • flammable:
      • flash point 31 degrees Centigrade, explosive limits 1.1-8.0%
      • NO SMOKING, no naked flames
    • toxic:
      • (inhalation) ODOUR threshold 25 ppm (Scandinavian Occupational Exposure Limit)
        • little inhalation irritation <210 ppm (UK OEL is 100 ppm 8h TWA)
        • irritating to nose and throat above 500 ppm
        • NIOSH IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health) at 700 ppm
      • (ingestion) IRRITATING to mouth, throat and stomach
        • may lead to vomiting and dizziness
        • harmful effects at >4 g/kg of body weight
      • (skin contact) IRRITATING: evident as itching and redness
        • frequent or prolonged contact leads to dermatitis
        • degreases skin
      • (eye contact) IRRITATION may last several hours
styrene odour and time weighted average occupational exposure levels oel
Styrene odour andtime weighted average occupational exposure levels (OEL)

** see for Lecture C4 webpage for sources **

health and safety unsaturated polyester resin upe7
Health and Safety: Unsaturated PolyEster resin (UPE)
  • COSHH
    • substitution: resin without styrene (eg epoxy)

or low styrene emission resin

  • Engineering controls
    • general ventilation to reduce background level
    • local exhaust ventilation with flow away from operator
    • use shielded rollers to reduce droplet cloud
    • protection:lab coat, barrier cream, gloves, goggles
  • Disposal to waste solvent bottle if resin uncured
health and safety unsaturated polyester resin upe8
Health and Safety: Unsaturated PolyEster resin (UPE)
  • Peroxide Initiator (usually added as 1-2%)
    • acetyl acetone peroxide (AAP), benzoyl peroxide (BzO2),hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP)
    • SEVERE IRRITANTS to skin
    • CAUSE BURNS: wash immediately for 15 minutes with waterand obtain doctors attention
    • CORROSIVE to moist tissue (eyes, nose, throat, airways to lungs)
    • Irreversible damage may be caused to eyes by prolonged contact
    • avoid contact between MEKP and rust
    • BzO2: EXTREME RISK OF EXPLOSION by shock, friction, fire or ignition
  • COSHH
    • substitution: different resin system?
    • engineering controls: use as a dilute solution if practicable
    • protection: protective clothing, face/eye protection
  • Handle and open container with care
  • Ignition: contact with combustible material may cause fire
    • do not mop up with e.g. paper cloths
  • Disposal do not empty into drains
acetyl acetone peroxide aap
acetyl acetone peroxide (AAP)
  • 2,4-pentanedione peroxide solution
  • CAS 37187-22-7 a.k.a. Luperox 224
    • Formula: C10H14O6
    • Density: 1.177 g/cm3
    • Melting Point: ≥60 °C (SADT)
    • Boiling Point: 301.9 °C at 760 mmHg
    • Flash Point: 129.7 °C
    • Hazard Symbols: O; C
    • Risk Codes: 20/22-34-7
    • Safety: 26-36/37/39-45-3/7-14
    • Transport Information: UN 3105 5.2

peroxide >

health and safety unsaturated polyester resin
Health and Safety: unsaturated polyester resin
  • accelerators (1-2%)
    • cobalt-based solutions in styrene (cobalt naphthenate or cobalt-octoate)
    • amine-based 25% solution in styrene
  • toxic if swallowed, inhaled or allowed to remain in contact with the skin
  • fumes from burning accelerators contain toxic materials
health and safety unsaturated polyester resin upe11
Health and Safety: Unsaturated PolyEster resin (UPE)

never, never, nevermix catalyst (initiator)directly with accelerator:

they will form an

explosive mixture

health safety epoxy resin ep
Health & Safety: Epoxy resin (Ep)
  • Base resin
    • mild to moderate primary skin irritants
    • irritation potential increased by prolonged skin contact
    • EPOXY SENSITIZATION:
      • skin reddens in close proximity to uncured resin
  • For all curing agents
    • wear protective clothing and goggles
    • ventilation is essential
health safety epoxy resin curing agents
Health & Safety: epoxy resin curing agents
  • aliphatic amines
    • alkaline caustic materials
    • cause burns and severe tissue damage to skin, mucous membranes and eyes
    • ALL contact should be avoided
  • solid aromatic amines
    • less caustic, less irritating and less sensitising than aliphatic amines
    • diaminodiphenylmethane (DAPM) is toxic/known to cause liver damage in humans
    • DAPM can be absorbed through the skin so all contact should be avoided
  • cycloaliphatic amines
    • variable in their irritation and sensitising effect
    • extremely irritating to the eyes
  • polyamides
    • skin irritants of varying sensitivity, but generally non-sensitising to the skin
    • extremely irritating to the eyes
health safety thermoplastics
Health & Safety: thermoplastics
  • generally chemically inert
  • need to be processed at high temp.
    • beware of molten polymer (hot!)
health safety reinforcement fibres
Health & Safety: Reinforcement Fibres
  • respirable dust is believed to have a particle size of <3 μm
    • for safety, 5 μm is assumed
    • reinforcement fibre diameters are in the range 6-15 μm
    • carbon and glass fibres are not expected to break into lengths shorter than the diameter
    • aramid (and polyethylene) fibres have a complex microstructure and may fibrillate into particles of <3 μm (respirable?)
  • all reinforcements should be regarded as a nuisance dust when cutting/machining
    • control limits are 10 mg/m3 total dust
    • 5 mg/m3 forman-made mineral fibre
  • disposal
    • all man-made fibres are a notifiable wasteand must be disposed of into the bagged bins provided
health safety ancillary materials
Health & Safety: ancillary materials
  • you are also likely to use ....
    • solvents
    • release agents
    • etcetera
  • the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)is there to be read, then you compilea risk assessment specific to the taskbefore you start work
health safety sharps
Health & Safety: sharps
  • you will be working with potentially dangerous chemicals
  • they need not be harmful if they are treated with respect
  • the most common entries in the Accident Book are cuts from knives or from sharp edges on demoulding
first aid at work plus
First Aid at Work plus ...
  • The nominated First Aiders for Brunel are:
    • Steve Edmonds, 2.32536 Brunel W15
    • Tony Tapp, 2.32539 Brunel W14
    • heavy structures laboratory near Brunel south door
  • Cumberland Centre Minor Accident Unit  567999
  • Royal Eye Infirmary (Derriford)  0845 155 8094
  • In an emergency, call Security first on 33333,(Security can than expedite the services once on site)then ring for external services using 9.999
health safety summary
Health & safety: summary
  • Remember to:
  • read and follow suppliers safety sheet and instructions for use
  • store and handle materials in the appropriate safe way
  • consider alternative materials and engineering controls
  • use ventilation and fume/dust control equipment properly
  • wear appropriate personal protection
  • good housekeeping is essential foryour safety and that of your colleagues
health safety summary20
Health & safety: summary
  • do not:
    • eat, drink (or smoke), in the laboratory or storage areas
    • mix peroxide initiator with accelerator
    • allow waste to accumulate
    • use solvents for cleaning skin
    • use combustible materials to soak up spillage
risk assessment
Risk assessment
  • really, this is simple:
    • probability * severity = risk factor (RF)
    • if RF is high, then how can it be reduced?
  • http://www.tech.plym.ac.uk/sme/mats324/risk.htm
risk assessment23
Risk assessment
  • probability order

1 = unlikely 1:100

2 = possible 1:10000

3 = probable 1:100000

  • http://www.tech.plym.ac.uk/sme/mats324/risk.htm
risk assessment24
Risk assessment
  • severity example

1 = minor pierced skin

2 = serious broken limb

3 = critical life-changing

  • http://www.tech.plym.ac.uk/sme/mats324/risk.htm
risk assessment25
Risk assessment
  • remember, risk factor is calculated
    • risk factor (RF) = probability * severity

1-3 = low risk

4 = medium risk

6 or 9 = high risk

    • RF cannot be 5, 7 or 8
  • http://www.tech.plym.ac.uk/sme/mats324/risk.htm
some people do stupid things
Some people do stupid things …
  • The winners of the competition: safety at work
  • Russian mechanics study airbag deployment
  • Construction workers
  • The Galway Car Recovery incident
  • DeWalt power tools
  • Petrol tanker in Paraguay and mobile-phone-as-a-light