what is a forest n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
What is a Forest PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
What is a Forest

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 30

What is a Forest - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 223 Views
  • Uploaded on

What is a Forest. WHAT IS A FOREST?. Only trees? A community? An ecosystem? Includes animals? Fish? Streams & lakes? Houses? How big of an area? Regeneration areas? Plantations? Christmas tree farm? Ecological processes like nutrient or energy cycling? .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'What is a Forest' - Pat_Xavi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
what is a forest

What is a Forest

WHAT IS A FOREST?

Only trees? A community? An ecosystem?

Includes animals? Fish? Streams & lakes? Houses?

How big of an area?

Regeneration areas? Plantations? Christmas tree farm?

Ecological processes like nutrient or energy cycling?

“That portion of a geographically large area dominated by trees. As an ecosystem, it is meant to include all plants and sometimes the animals dependent upon the trees and plants. Smaller area of largely homogenous tree compositions are called stands”.

slide2

ANOTHER DEFINITION

Forest - An ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover, often consisting of stands varying in characteristics such as species composition, structure, age class, and associated processes, and commonly including meadows, streams, fish, and wildlife.

- Note: forest include special kinds such as industrial forests, non-industrial private forests, plantations, public forests, protection forests, and urban forests, as well as parks and wilderness.

-Society of American Foresters

forest distribution

FOREST DISTRIBUTION

Data compiled by: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Starkville MS, December 1992

FOREST DISTRIBUTION IN THE UNITED STATES

forest history

FOREST HISTORY

Forest

History ...

Cut ...

Burn ...

Farm ...

Recovery ...

Source: “Michigan’s Forests”. DNR. 32 pp.

early logging land clearing

EARLY LOGGING & LAND CLEARING

Much of the forest was simply cut and burned for farms.

Pines and other softwoods were harvested for lumber for growing cities. Softwoods float better than hardwoods, so could be river run.

The hardwoods were cut in the second wave for charcoal, mine props, car parts, furniture, and other products.

Did you know the monetary value of the wood harvested from Michigan exceeded the monetary value of all the gold taken from California during the gold rush?

presettlement forest cover

PRESETTLEMENT FOREST COVER

White, Red, and Jack Pine

Spruce and Fir

Oak and Hickory

Elm, Ash, and Cottonwood

Maple, Beech, and Yellow Birch

Aspen and Paper Birch

Non-Forested Land

Water

Source: Great Lakes Assessment web site: http://198.87.4.38/gla/index.htm

Early settlement vegetation was obtained from the Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Vegetation mapped by P.J. Comer et al. (1995) using General Land Office surveys dated 1816-1856.

current forest cover

CURRENT FOREST COVER

White, Red, and Jack Pine

Spruce and Fir

Oak and Hickory

Elm, Ash, and Cottonwood

Maple, Beech, and Yellow Birch

Aspen and Paper Birch

Non-Forested Land

Water

Source: Great Lakes Assessment web site: http://198.87.4.38/gla/index.htm

U.S. Forest Service. AVHRR satellite data collected in 1990, and processed by the Southern Forest Experiment Station.

u p forest and land cover class 1993

U.P. FOREST ANDLAND COVER CLASS-1993

TIMBERLAND

77%

RESERVED FOREST

3%

OTHER FOREST

1%

NON-FOREST & WATER

19%

Source: FIA-1993Excel: FIA/LandUseCoUP

u p timberland by forest type 1993

U.P.TIMBERLANDBY FOREST TYPE-1993

NORTHERN HARDWOOD

44%

ASPEN

SWAMP HARDWOOD

14%

6%

OTHER

3%

PINE

LOWLAND CONIFER

8%

25%

Source: FIA-1993Excel: FIA/TimberUP-Type

u p timberland by ownership 1993

U.P. TIMBERLANDBY OWNERSHIP-1993

1%

OTHER

15%

CORPORATE

FOREST INDUSTRY

18%

19%

STATE

20%

FEDERAL

PNIF

27%

THOUSANDS OF ACRES

Source: FIA-1993Excel: FIA/Up Owner & NonForest

volume by species group 1980 1993

VOLUME BY SPECIES GROUP 1980 & 1993

50

40

MILLION CORDS

30

20

10

PINE

OTHER SOFTWOOD

OAK-HICKORY

NORTHERN HARDWOOD

ASPEN

OTHER HARDWOOD

Note: X-axis labels are species groups, not forest types

Source: FIA-1993Excel: MWM/Vol Species UP

growth harvest and mortality 1980 1993

GROWTH, HARVEST, AND MORTALITY 1980-1993

SOFTWOODS

HARDWOODS

Source: FIA-1993Excel: MWM/UP Growth

harvest
harvest

How much wood is harvested in the U.P. each year?

Annual U.P. Harvest

About 1.7 million cords

Source: USFS FIA, 1992, Periodic Annual Removals, 1980-1992

growth
Growth

How much wood is GROWNin the U.P. each year?

Annual U.P. Growth

About 3.7 million cords

Source: USFS FIA, 1992, Periodic Annual Removals, 1980-1992

grow stock
Grow Stock

How much total wood is STANDING in U.P. forest?

Standing Wood Volume in the U.P.

About 156 million cords!

Around the world 4.7 times!

Source: USFS FIA, 1992, Periodic Annual Removals, 1980-1992

10 most common trees in the u p 1993

10 MOST COMMON TREES IN THE U.P.-1993

SUGAR MAPLE

OTHERS

RED MAPLE

QUAKING ASPEN

CEDAR

P.BIRCH

Y.BIRCH

FIR

HEMLOCK

W.PINE

W.SPR.

Source: FIA-1993Excel: MWM/Common Trees

forest type distribution western eastern u p

FOREST TYPE DISTRIBUTIONWESTERN & EASTERN U.P.

MILLIONACRES

W.U.P.

E.U.P.

PINE

SPRUCE-FIR

OTHERS

ASPEN-BIRCH

ELM-ASH-COTTONWOOD

NORTHERNHARDWOOD

Source: FIA-1993Excel: FIA/TimberCo-Type

why are private forest holdings so important

WHY ARE PRIVATE FOREST HOLDINGS SO IMPORTANT?

Personal reasons. We’ll take a look at the U.P. a bit later.

Community reasons.

“The land is mine”, said the Creator. “You may not sell it permanently.” “You are merely my tenants and sharecroppers.”

- Leviticus 25:23

“If we are going to continue using more and more wood, then we have a moral responsibility to grow more wood to meet that demand.” “The good news is that we can do just that … without destroying our natural forests in the process.”

- Dr. Jess Daniels

community reasons

COMMUNITY REASONS

Our forest-based economy. Jobs, schools, roads, etc.

Wildlife populations extend beyond property boundaries.

Wood supply. People use more wood each year.

Future generations of people.

Visual quality and sense of place.

Watershed protection/water quality.

Maintenance of lifestyle and traditions.

Lets take a look at some of these reasons in a little more detail . . .

wood consumption in the united states

WOOD CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES

MILLION CORDS

1960

1970

1980

1988

1993

2 MILLION BOX CARS ENCIRCLING THE EARTH!

Source: Genetics Workshop Notes, 1995

reduced timberland base

REDUCED TIMBERLAND BASE

52

62

77

87

90

00

30

WHY?

DROP IN TIMBERLAND ACREAGE IN THE U.S.

467 million acres in 1990

DROP IN PER CAPITA TIMBERLAND ACREAGE

1.88 acres in 1990

Source: Genetics Workshop Notes, 1995

our collective economy

OUR COLLECTIVE ECONOMY

  • Michigan forest industry adds over $9 billion each year.
  • Supports 150,000 jobs.
  • Timber sales provide millions to roads and schools, and other local government expenditures.
  • There are 367 primary wood-using mills and an additional 1,733 manufacturers.
  • Is vital to the Upper Peninsula economy.

MDNR “Wood Products in Michigan”, 1996.

forests as a lifestyle choice and quality environment

FORESTS AS A LIFESTYLE CHOICE AND QUALITY ENVIRONMENT

watersheds

people

visual

Hunting/tradition

wildlife

timberland acreage ownership in the upper peninsula
TIMBERLAND ACREAGE OWNERSHIP in the UPPER PENINSULA

County/Municipal

PRIVATE 5,076,800 acres

State

INDIVIDUAL 2,826,221 acres

Federal

Total Timberland8,398,300 acres

OthersClubs/Assns

Total U.P. Area10,509,100 acres

Corporate

Partnerships

Source: PNIF-1994Excel: MWM/PNIFac-OwnClass

Note: FIA-1994 shows PNIF acreage to be 2,318,600 acres

timberland acreage u p owner occupation

TIMBERLAND ACREAGE - U.P. OWNER OCCUPATION

Retirees

No Answer

Professionals

Executives

Skilled Trades

Other Blue Collar

Other White Collar

Farmers

Homemakers

Service

1000 Acres

PNIF Area - 2,826,221 Acres

Source: PNIF-1994Excel: MWM/PNIFac-Various

pnif ownership in michigan

PNIF OWNERSHIPIN MICHIGAN

% PNIF

0-19

20-39

40-59

60-79

80+

FOREST HELD BY PRIVATE,NON-INDUSTRIAL LANDOWNERS

Only counties which are at least 25% forested are included.

Source: FIA-1993Excel: MWM/MI-Co-PNIF

reasons to own forest land

REASONS TO OWN FOREST LAND

MICHIGAN-WIDE

RecreationPart of ResidenceEsthetic EnjoymentPart of FarmFarm or Domestic UseLand InvestmentNo AnswerOtherEstate to Pass OnTimber Production

UPPER PENINSULA

RecreationPart of Residence

Esthetic Enjoyment

No Answer

Farm or Domestic Use

Other

Land Investment

Estate to Pass On

Timber Production

Part of Farm

#1 in TermsofAcres

Source: PNIF-1994Excel: MWM/Reason to Own

forest tenure upper lower peninsula

FOREST TENUREUPPER & LOWER PENINSULA

UP

LP

%

The UP has a higher percentage of acres in new ownerships and the oldest ownerships.

90s

80s

70s

60s

50s

40s

<40s

N/A

Decade of Acquisition

Source: PNIF-1994Excel: MWM/Tenure

average size of ownership

AVERAGE SIZEOF OWNERSHIP

All MI SLP

NLP

EUP

WUP

UP and WUP tend to be larger probably due to large industrial ownerships and further distances from human population centers.

Source: PNIF-1994Excel: MWM/PNIFac-various

to harvest or not

TO HARVEST … OR NOT?

REASONS FOR HARVESTING

For Own Use

Mature Timber

No Reason Given

Land Clearing

Timber Salvage

Cultural Treatment

Needed Money

Other

Wildlife Habitat

Good Price

Recreation/Visuals

REASONS FORNOT HARVESTINGNo AnswerLow VolumeOpposed to HarvestScenery ReducedDestroys HuntingArea Too SmallOtherNot Enough KnowledgeTrees Too SmallPoor QualityDistrust LoggersNo Market/Low Price

169,772 responses

8,810,158 acres

183,363 responses

3,229,242 acres

For All Michigan

Source: PNIF-1994Tables 20 & 23