environmental debates l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Environmental Debates PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Environmental Debates

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Environmental Debates - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 266 Views
  • Uploaded on

Environmental Debates Dominant paradigm values wealth creation and the domination of nature. Alternative environmental paradigm gives non-material values prominence and takes the view that humans should live in harmony with the environment. Gaia Hypothesis: earth as a living organism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Environmental Debates' - Pat_Xavi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
environmental debates
Environmental Debates

Dominant paradigm values wealth creation and the domination of nature.

Alternative environmental paradigm gives non-material values prominence and takes the view that humans should live in harmony with the environment.

  • Gaia Hypothesis: earth as a living organism
  • The environment as a global issue
  • Global environmental and climatic change
impact of globalization and development
Impact of Globalization and Development
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Resource Extraction
  • World Bank Infrastructure Projects and Impacts
  • Removal of Trade Barriers and Open Markets
  • Structural Adjustment Programs and Debt
impact of globalization and development3
Impact of Globalization and Development
  • Result =
  • More environmental destruction than at any previous moment in history
  • Crisis of biodiversity
  • Scale and Intensity of destruction of natural ecosystems
  • Global warming
  • Toxic wastes and toxic chemicals in the food chain
regional deforestation rates
Regional Deforestation Rates

RegionForest AreaAnnual % Change (hectares 1995)(1991-1995)

Tropical Regions

Africa504.90-3.69

Asia/Oceania321.67-3.21

Latin America/Caribbean907.39-5.69

Nontropical Regions

Africa15.34-0.05

Asia/Oceania243.20-0.21

Latin America/Caribbean42.65-0.12

Europe145.99+0.39

Former Soviet Union816.17+0.56

North America457.09+0.76

  • Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests 1997 (Rome: UN, 1997).
status of coral reefs by region mid 1990s
Status of Coral Reefs by Region(mid-1990s)

Region Total Reef Area % of Total at High (sq. kilometers)or Medium Risk

Middle east20,00061

Caribbean20,00061

Atlantic3,10087

Indian Ocean36,10054

Southeast Asia68,10082

Pacific108,00041

Global Total255,300 58

  • Source: World Resources institute, et al., Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs (Washington, DC: 1998).
slide6

Annual Mean Global Surface Air Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations, 1866-1998

Mean Temperature, C

CO2, parts per million

382

352

322

292

262

232

202

15

x

Carbon dioxide concentration

x

14.5

x

x

x

x

14

x

Surface air temperature

13.5

Temperature trend, 1966-98: +1.69 C./century

13

1866 1916 1966 1998

materials consumption 1970 1995 metric tons per capita
Materials* Consumption, 1970-1995(metric tons per capita)

197019751980198519901995

U.S.10.389.269.559.2610.2210.84

World**1.531.491.561.491.61 1.66

*Materials include: minerals, wood products, metals, and synthetics.

**The world dataset does not include all commodities and varies greatly in how data is reported.

u s consumption of global resources
U.S. Consumption of Global Resources
  • ResourceU.S. as a % of World
  • Energy Consumption (1995) 24.8%
  • Forestry Product Consumption (1996) 18.5%
  • Materials Consumption (1995) 28.7%
  • Water Consumption (1990) 13.7%
  • Population (1999) 4.6%
novel conceptual issues
Novel Conceptual Issues
  • 1. The creation of “technonatures”
  • Human have always intervened in nature
    • Rainforests and their inhabitants co-produce one another;
    • Farms and plantations as designed ecosystems
    • Molecular technologies—genetics and biotechnologies: new reproductive technologies; nanotechnologies
  • Biology under control is no longer “nature”
  • Capacity to “design” evolution?
novel conceptual issues10
Novel Conceptual Issues
  • 2. New ideas about the relations of nature + culture
  • Development: both nature and culture irrelevant in “modern” societies.
    • False: cultural differences increasingly important + development and economic activities of industrialized nations led to current crisis
novel conceptual issues11
Novel Conceptual Issues
  • --Cultural Ecology Paradigm (Anthropology, 1950s-1960s): humans “adapt” to the environment while changing it to meet their own needs
  • --Problem: larger forces (e.g., capitalism) affect local human/environment relations
  • --Political Ecology: human/nature relations in the context of local cultures, global forces; includes issues of ethnicity, gender etc.
towards solutions international institutions un conferences
Towards Solutions: International Institutions (UN Conferences)
  • 1.Stockholm (1972), Declaration on the Environment
    • http://www.tufts.edu/departments/fletcher/multi/texts/STOCKHOLM-DECL.txt

--North/South Conflicts:

  • --Development/Economic Welfare vs. the Environment?
  • --Protect rainforest vs. transform production/consumption?
towards solutions international institutions un conferences13
Towards Solutions: International Institutions (UN Conferences)
  • 2. Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro (1992), Agenda 21 and Sustainable Development
  • http://www.nssd.net/index.html

-- Nation-States as Obstacles?

-- Problems are global/international

-- Principle of Sovereignty over a given territory breaks human unity + interrelation between territories (global ecosystem)

-- Resource extraction important to states; each acts on behalf of interests

towards solutions international institutions un conferences14
Towards Solutions: International Institutions (UN Conferences)
  • Growing awareness: interdependent/global character of the problem
  • International Institutions more rhetoric than action; no power to implement
  • Everyone’s an environmentalist yet nothing changes?
alternative institutions and social movements bypassing nation states
Alternative Institutions and Social Movements: bypassing nation- states?

Growth of Humanitarian NGOs in 1990s (undermine rationale for Nation-State?)

Critique of debt burdens

“Debt-for-Nature” plans

http://www.conservation.org/web/ABOUTCI/STRATEGY/Dfnswap.htm

alternative institutions and social movements bypassing nation states16
Alternative Institutions and Social Movements: bypassing nation-states?

New Social Movements

Privileged spaces, sources of inspiration to think differently about the environment

Environmental Justice Movement = poor/minorities + “environmental discrimination”

Rainforest Movement

Indigenous People’s Movements

Oppose lack of transparency/participation in making decisions about uses of space

Seek voice = local democracy or autonomy

key features of transnational activist networks
Key Features of Transnational Activist Networks

1. Simultaneously Local and Global

  • Global:
    • --“Glacial time” frame; evolutionary thinking = global perspective
    • --Use of new technologies (internet/web to coordinate actions, share information; media events, video)

Local:

--Defense of places; harmony with environment starts locally

--Participation and Grassroots organizations

key features of transnational activist networks18
Key Features of Transnational Activist Networks

2. Source of a new global biological identity capable of weaving in singular cultures and diversity?

  • Include local communities with different ways of thinking about/using environment
  • rights to territorial autonomy + cultural identity
  • preservation of local practices and knowledges (different ideas about use of territory)
key features of transnational activist networks19
Key Features of Transnational Activist Networks

3. Formation of a new culture (new ways of thinking about relations among economy, society, nature)?

  • Nature in the “modern” model:

--radical separation human and nature

--Nature to be conquered through science/technology

  • Other models: continuity human/natural/spiritual = different treatment of natural world
key features of transnational activist networks20
Key Features of Transnational Activist Networks

4. Growing links environmental movements + other social struggles (human rights, women’s groups, indigenous peoples)

ethnic minorities and indigenous rights movements
Ethnic minorities and indigenous rights movements
  • http://www.china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/

Honor Our Neighbors Origins and Rights

http://www.nativeweb.org/resources/human_rights_organizations/

unpo unrepresented nations and peoples organisation
UNPO -- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation

“UNPO is an international organisation created by nations and peoples around the world, who are not represented as such in the world´s principal international organisations, such as the United Nations.”

  • “Founded in 1991, UNPO today consists of over 50 members who represent over 100 million persons.”
  • “UNPO offers an international forum for occupied nations, indigenous peoples, minorities, and even oppressed majorities who currently struggle to regain their lost countries, preserve their cultural identities, protect their basic human and economic rights and safeguard the natural environment.”
  • http://www.unpo.org/
slide23

Evolving Ontology

Launch Broadcast

July 28, 1999

slide25

Evolving Ontology

Joseph Firmage

February 8, 2000

Launch Broadcast

July 28, 1999