Environmental Debates Dominant paradigm values wealth creation and the domination of nature. Alternative environmental paradigm gives non-material values prominence and takes the view that humans should live in harmony with the environment. Gaia Hypothesis: earth as a living organism
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Dominant paradigm values wealth creation and the domination of nature.
Alternative environmental paradigm gives non-material values prominence and takes the view that humans should live in harmony with the environment.
RegionForest AreaAnnual % Change (hectares 1995)(1991-1995)
Former Soviet Union816.17+0.56
Region Total Reef Area % of Total at High (sq. kilometers)or Medium Risk
Global Total255,300 58
Annual Mean Global Surface Air Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations, 1866-1998
Mean Temperature, C
CO2, parts per million
Carbon dioxide concentration
Surface air temperature
Temperature trend, 1966-98: +1.69 C./century
1866 1916 1966 1998
*Materials include: minerals, wood products, metals, and synthetics.
**The world dataset does not include all commodities and varies greatly in how data is reported.
-- Nation-States as Obstacles?
-- Problems are global/international
-- Principle of Sovereignty over a given territory breaks human unity + interrelation between territories (global ecosystem)
-- Resource extraction important to states; each acts on behalf of interests
Growth of Humanitarian NGOs in 1990s (undermine rationale for Nation-State?)
Critique of debt burdens
New Social Movements
Privileged spaces, sources of inspiration to think differently about the environment
Environmental Justice Movement = poor/minorities + “environmental discrimination”
Indigenous People’s Movements
Oppose lack of transparency/participation in making decisions about uses of space
Seek voice = local democracy or autonomy
1. Simultaneously Local and Global
--Defense of places; harmony with environment starts locally
--Participation and Grassroots organizations
2. Source of a new global biological identity capable of weaving in singular cultures and diversity?
3. Formation of a new culture (new ways of thinking about relations among economy, society, nature)?
--radical separation human and nature
--Nature to be conquered through science/technology
4. Growing links environmental movements + other social struggles (human rights, women’s groups, indigenous peoples)
Honor Our Neighbors Origins and Rights
“UNPO is an international organisation created by nations and peoples around the world, who are not represented as such in the world´s principal international organisations, such as the United Nations.”
July 28, 1999
February 8, 2000
July 28, 1999