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Deviance in Sport. Coakley, J. (2004). Sports in society: Issues and Controversies. 8th ed. New York: McGraw- Hill. . Deviance in Sport. Defining Deviance in Sport Studying Deviance in Sport Deviance Among Athletes Deviant Overconformity in Sports Implications of Deviance in Sport.

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deviance in sport

Deviance in Sport

Coakley, J. (2004). Sports in society: Issues and Controversies. 8th ed. New York: McGraw- Hill.

deviance in sport2
Deviance in Sport
  • Defining Deviance in Sport
  • Studying Deviance in Sport
  • Deviance Among Athletes
  • Deviant Overconformity in Sports
  • Implications of Deviance in Sport
deviance in sport3
Deviance in Sport
  • Difficulties associated with studying deviance
    • Deviance in sport can not be described by a single theory
    • Deviance in sport is not always congruent with deviance in society
    • Unquestioned acceptance of norms
    • Training and performance have become “medicalized”
defining and studying deviance in sport
Defining and Studying Deviance in Sport
  • Three primary approaches
    • Functionalist Theory
    • Conflict Theory
    • Interactionist and Critical Theories
functionalist theory
Functionalist Theory
  • Deviance disrupts shared values
  • Deviance-failure to conform
    • Departure from cultural ideals
      • Failure to learn and internalize cultural beliefs and norms
      • Conflicts and strains within society
    • Sport’s cultural ideals and norms
      • Improving skills, reaching goals, commitment
      • Deviance results from rejecting sport norms
    • Problems with Functionalist Theory
conflict theory
Conflict Theory
  • Deviance interferes with the interests of people with economic power
  • Deviance-behavior that violates interests of people with power
    • Social order and norms are based on those who hold the most power
      • Violation results in deviance
      • Individuals without power are disadvantaged
    • Sport’s norms and rules represent those of power and ignore athletes
      • Athletes as victims that are forced to be deviant
    • Problems with Conflict Theory
interactionist and critical theories
Interactionist and Critical Theories
  • Deviance is based on social processes and power relations
  • Deviance-ideas, behaviors and characteristics outside of the normally accepted range
  • Continuum of deviance:
    • Underconformity-ignoring or rejecting norms
    • Overconformity-unquestioned acceptance
    • Normal range of acceptance falls between underconformity and overconformity
  • Calls attention to Sport Ethic
sport ethic
Sport Ethic
  • Norms accepted as the dominant criteria for defining an athlete
    • An athlete makes sacrifices for the game
    • An athlete strives for distinction
    • An athlete accepts risks and plays through pain
    • An athlete accepts no limits in the pursuit of possibilities
deviant overconformity
Deviant Overconformity
  • Reasons for deviant overconformity
    • Athletes will do anything to participate as long as possible
    • Praise, accolades and rewards associated with overconformity
    • Drama and excitement
    • Establishment of strong bonds
deviant overconformity10
Deviant Overconformity
  • Common characteristics of overconformers
    • Low self-esteem
    • Eager for acceptance
    • Chance for achievement and establishing oneself
  • Group demands and memberships
deviant overconformity11
Deviant Overconformity
  • Linkage between deviant overconformity to the sport ethic and deviant underconformity within society
    • Binge drinking, group crimes, harassment, coercing other to engage in deviant behavior
  • Controlling deviant overconformity
    • Deviant overconformity is often advantageous for coaches, parents, sponsors, owners, etc.
    • Control requires a commitment to the establishment of acceptable limits
deviance in sport12
Deviance in Sport
  • Deviance on the field and in sport settings
    • Cheating, gambling, point shaving, throwing games, fighting, performance-enhancing drugs, etc.
  • Deviance off the field and outside of sport settings
    • Arrests, criminal activity, academic cheating, alcohol use and abuse, etc.
    • Athlete vs. non-athlete rate of occurrence
deviance beyond the athlete
Deviance Beyond the Athlete
  • Coaches
  • School and Sport Team Administrators
  • Sport Team Owners
  • Judges and officials
  • Team managers and staff
  • Media promoters and commentators
  • Agents
  • Parents
  • Spectators
performance enhancing substances
Performance-Enhancing Substances
  • Expression of overcommitment to the sport ethic
  • Difficult to define and ban
      • Legal (aspirin) and illegal (heroin) substances
      • Natural or synthetic
      • Harmless or dangerous
      • Physical changes, psychological changes, or both
  • International Olympic Committee (IOC) definition
  • Professional Sport Leagues, NCAA, High Schools
  • Endless game of “hide and seek”
performance enhancing substances15
Performance-Enhancing Substances
  • Why do athletes continue to look to performance-enhancing substances?
  • Drug Testing
    • Cons
      • Ineffective
      • Violation of rights and privacy
    • Pros
      • Health of athletes
      • Integrity of sport
      • Drug use is illegal and must be controlled
controlling deviant overconformity
Controlling Deviant Overconformity
  • Recommendations
    • Examine the nature of elite and high performance sports
    • Rules and regulations
    • Educational programs
    • Code of ethics
deviance in sport17
Deviance in Sport
  • Definitions of deviance in sport
    • No one theory can explain deviance
  • Deviance in sport vs. deviance in society
  • Overconformity
    • Sport ethic
  • Performance-enhancing substances
    • Drug testing
  • Controlling deviant overconformity