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Dataflow Diagrams. Modeling notations. A graphical modeling notation focuses on one aspect of a system Several models are needed to give a complete picture Models must work together No set of modeling notations is perfect. UML Models. Use case diagrams and use cases Class diagrams

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modeling notations
Modeling notations
  • A graphical modeling notation focuses on one aspect of a system
  • Several models are needed to give a complete picture
  • Models must work together
  • No set of modeling notations is perfect

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uml models
UML Models
  • Use case diagrams and use cases
  • Class diagrams
  • Sequence diagram (event trace)
  • Object diagram
  • Package diagram
  • Deployment diagrams
  • State machine diagram
  • Activity diagram
  • Communication diagram
  • Component diagrams
  • Interaction overview diagrams
  • Timing diagrams

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structured analysis models
Structured Analysis Models
  • Process
    • Data-flow diagram
    • Process specification
  • Data
    • Entity-Relationship Diagrams
    • Data dictionary
  • Control
    • Control flow diagram
    • State-transition diagram

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elements of dataflow diagram
Elements of Dataflow Diagram
  • Boxes (bubbles)
    • Process - information transform
    • External entity – source/sink
    • Data store
  • Line
    • Data item - Flow of information

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health claims processing
Health Claims Processing
  • R1) Receives health claims and supporting documents via many sources: electronically, fax, on paper.
  • R2) Scanned paper and fax processed by OCR. Documents first subject to form dropout, deskewing, despeckling.
  • R3) All images are logged to optical disk.

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slide7
R4) Fields with low confidence levels are repaired by hand. Certain types of claims are transmitted to an offshore data entry vendor.
  • R5) Match the plan and the health care provider.
  • R6) Existing mainframe system processes accepted claims.

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slide8
R7) Determine if claim can be paid, and how much. If there are inconsistencies, suspend the claim until a human (adjudicator) can look at it.
  • R8) Adjudicator looks at documents about claim and history of client and can ask for more information, can accept claim, or can reject claim.

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dataflow diagram
Dataflow Diagram

Adjudicator

Web site

claims

Accept claim

Mainframe

Claim Processing System

claim images

Fax

Request more info.

Rejection

claim images

Paper claims

Postal system

database

claims

Manual

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claim processing system
Claim Processing System

Adjudicator

Mainframe

accept claim

Web site

claims

claims

Automatic claims processing

Rejection notice

claims

Postal system

Make claims

rejection

2

claims

request more info.

1

Adjudication

claim images

claim images

claims

3

database

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process decomposition
Process decomposition
  • What happens inside a process?
  • Another dataflow diagram!
  • Prefix process numbers with number of parent process

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process 1 make claims
Process 1: Make claims

claims

claims

claims

Manual repair

OCR

1.2

claim images

1.1

claim images

database

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process specification
Process specification
  • What happens inside a bubble?
  • Used for lowest level of detail.
  • Describe how inputs are converted to outputs.
  • Use
    • English
    • Pseudo-code
    • Formulas or program

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process 1 1 ocr
Process 1.1: OCR
  • Apply
    • form dropout algorithm
    • deskewing algorithm
    • despeckling algorithm
    • OCR algorithm
  • If any character is less than 99.9% reliable, send to manual repair, else submit for claim processing.

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control
Control
  • What is the order of events?
  • How fast must the system respond to an event?
  • What are the possible states of the system?

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control models
Control models
  • Control Flow Diagram (DFD)
  • State machine (State Transition Diagram)

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control flow diagram
Control Flow Diagram

adjudicator

accept claim

Adjudicator ready

Automatic claims processing

claims

Claim ready

rejection

OCR

request more info.

Adjudication

claim images

database

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state transition diagram
State transition diagram

Adj. ready

Work queue empty

Worker busy

Adj. ready

claim ready

claim ready

Work queue empty

Worker waiting

Work queue nonempty

Worker busy

claim ready

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uml vs dfd
UML vs. DFD
  • UML designed for OO systems
    • Concentrates on structure
    • Control flow and data flow secondary
  • DFD designed for procedural systems
    • Process corresponds to a procedure
    • Data structure secondary

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conclusion
Conclusion
  • Need a SET of models
  • Building one model shows flaws in others
  • Reviews must check for consistency
  • No set is perfect - you may need to add a model

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software quality assurance
Software Quality Assurance
  • How can you tell if software has high quality?
  • How can we measure the quality of software?
  • How can we make sure software has high quality?

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perspective on quality
Perspective on quality
  • Customer
    • system not crashes
    • system follows documentation
    • system is logical and easy to use
  • Developer
    • system is easy to change
    • system is easy to understand
    • system is pleasant to work on

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mistakes about sqa
Mistakes about SQA
  • Quality is conformance to requirements and standards.
  • Variation control is the heart of quality control.

Feedback and continual improvement is the real heart of quality software.

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total quality management
Total Quality Management
  • Factories
  • Goal is for every item coming off the assembly line to be perfect
  • Management, production, engineering, QA
  • Everyone is involved in quality
  • Develop a reliable, repeatable process
  • Continuously improve the process

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quality is free
“Quality is free”

Effort

Quality

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failure vs flaw
Failure vs. flaw
  • Failure - program didn’t work right
  • Flaw - mistake in the text of the program
  • Failure analysis - what flaw caused this failure?
  • Flaw analysis - what is wrong with our process that allowed this flaw to be created and not detected?

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failure costs
Failure costs
  • Internal
    • rework
    • repair
    • failure analysis
  • External
    • resolving complaints
    • returning and replacing product
    • help line

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prevention costs
Prevention costs
  • Prevention
    • planning
    • managing and collecting information
    • reviews
  • Appraisal
    • inspection
    • testing

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next time
Next time
  • More on quality assurance
  • Inspections and Reviews

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