community ecology l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Community Ecology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Community Ecology

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 32

Community Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 238 Views
  • Uploaded on

Community Ecology. Chapter 47. Outline. Diversity and Composition Models Island Biogeography Habitat and Ecological Niche Competition Between Populations Predator-Prey Interactions Symbiotic Relationships Community Development Community Diversity. Community Concept.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Community Ecology' - Pat_Xavi


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
community ecology

Community Ecology

Chapter 47

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

outline
Outline
  • Diversity and Composition Models
  • Island Biogeography
  • Habitat and Ecological Niche
  • Competition Between Populations
  • Predator-Prey Interactions
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Community Development
  • Community Diversity

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

community concept
Community Concept
  • A community is an assemblage of populations interacting with one another within the same environment.
    • Composition is a listing of various species in the community.
    • Diversity includes both species richness and species diversity.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

diversity and composition models
Diversity and Composition Models
  • Gleason - Individualistic Model
    • Each population in community is there because its own particular abiotic requirements are met by a particular habitat.
  • Clements - Interactive Model
    • Community is the highest level of organization.
      • Dependent on biotic interactions.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

island biogeography
Island Biogeography
  • MacArthur and Wilson developed a general model of island biogeography to explain and predict the effects of distance from the mainland and size of an island on community diversity.
    • Island size and distance from population source affects species diversity.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

model of island biogeography
Model of Island Biogeography

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

community structure
Community Structure
  • Competition for limited resources between two species has a negative effect on the abundance of both species.
    • Predation and parasitism are expected to increase the abundance of the predator and parasite at the expense of the abundance of the prey and its host.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

habitat and ecological niche
Habitat and Ecological Niche
  • Habitat is the area an organism lives and reproduces in.
  • Ecological niche is the role an organism plays in its community, including its habitat and its interactions with other organisms.
    • Fundamental niche - All conditions under which the organism can survive.
    • Realized niche - Set of conditions under which it exists in nature.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

feeding niches for wading birds
Feeding Niches for Wading Birds

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

competition between populations
Competition Between Populations
  • Interspecific competition occurs when members of different species try to utilize a resource in limited supply.
    • Competitive Exclusion Principle - No two species can occupy the same niche at the same time.
      • Resource Partitioning decreases competition.
        • Can lead to character displacement.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

predator prey interactions
Predator-Prey Interactions
  • Predation occurs when one living organism, the predator, feeds on another, the prey.
    • Presence of predators can decrease prey densities, and vice-versa.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

lynx snowshoe hare interactions
Lynx-Snowshoe Hare Interactions

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

prey defenses
Prey Defenses
  • Prey defenses are mechanisms that thwart the possibility of being eaten by a predator.
    • Spines
    • Tough Epidermis
    • Poisonous Chemicals
    • Camouflage
    • Bright Coloration
    • Flocking Behavior

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

camouflage in the anglerfish
Camouflage in the Anglerfish

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

mimicry
Mimicry
  • Mimicry occurs when one species resembles another that possesses an overt antipredator defense.
    • Batesian - Mimic lacks defense of the organism it resembles.
    • Müllerian - Mimic shares same protective defense.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

symbiotic relationships
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Symbiosis refers to interactions in which there is a close relationship between members of two populations.
    • Parasitism
      • Parasite derives nourishment from a host, and may use host as habitat and mode of transmission.
        • Endoparasites
        • Ectoparasites

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

commensalism
Commensalism
  • Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one species is benefited and the other is neither benefited nor harmed.
    • Remoras and Sharks
      • Many examples may turn out to be mutualism or parasitism.
        • Amount of harm or benefit two species do to one another is partially determined by the investigator.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

mutualism
Mutualism
  • Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship in which both members of the association benefit.
    • Often help organisms obtain food or avoid predation.
      • Bacteria in human intestinal tact.
    • Need not be equally beneficial to both species.
      • Cleaning Symbiosis

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

cleaning symbiosis
Cleaning Symbiosis

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

community development
Community Development
  • Ecological Succession
    • A change involving a series of species replacements in a community following a disturbance.
      • Primary Succession occurs in areas where there is no soil formation.
      • Secondary Succession begins in areas where soil is present.
        • Pioneer Species

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

secondary succession in a forest
Secondary Succession in a Forest

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

succession models
Succession Models
  • Facilitation Model
    • Succession in a particular area will always lead to the same type of community.
      • Climax Community
        • Each stage facilitates invasion and replacement by organisms of the next stage.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

succession models26
Succession Models
  • Inhibition Model
    • Colonists hold onto their space and inhibit growth of other plants until the colonists are damaged or die.
  • Tolerance Model
    • Different types of plants can colonize an area at the same time.
      • Chance determine which seeds arrive first.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

community diversity
Community Diversity
  • Community stability can be recognized in three ways.
    • Persistence through time.
    • Resistance to change.
    • Recovery once a disturbance has occurred.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

intermediate disturbance hypothesis
Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
  • Moderate amounts of disturbances at moderate frequency are required for a high degree of community diversity.
    • If widespread disturbances occur frequently, diversity will be limited.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

predation competition and biodiversity
Predation, Competition, and Biodiversity
  • In certain communities, predation by a particular species reduces competition and increases diversity.
    • Predators that regulate competition and maintain community diversity are referred to as keystone predators.
  • Introduction of exotic species into a new area may lead to unbridled competition and resultant reduction in biodiversity.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

review
Review
  • Diversity and Composition Models
  • Island Biogeography
  • Habitat and Ecological Niche
  • Competition Between Populations
  • Predator-Prey Interactions
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Community Development
  • Community Diversity

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.