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CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT. Trudie Hughes. Could this problem be a result of inappropriate curriculum or teaching strategies? What do I demand and prohibit? Why do certain behaviors bother me?. Is this behavior developmentally appropriate? Do I focus on a behavioral excess or a deficiency?

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Classroom management

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Trudie Hughes


Teacher s reflection

Could this problem be a result of inappropriate curriculum or teaching strategies?

What do I demand and prohibit?

Why do certain behaviors bother me?

Is this behavior developmentally appropriate?

Do I focus on a behavioral excess or a deficiency?

Will resolution of the problem solve anything else?

Teacher’s Reflection

Kauffman, J. M. , Hallahan, D. P., Mostert, M.P., Trent, S.C., & Nuttycombe, D.G. (1993). Managing Classroom Behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon


Good teaching
Good Teaching or teaching strategies?

  • Instructional goals are clear

  • Knowledgeable of content and strategies for teaching it

  • Student expectations are clearly described

  • Provide practice that enrich and clarify content

  • Teach metacognitive strategies


Good teaching1
Good Teaching or teaching strategies?

  • Knowledgeable about student’s abilities, adapt instruction according to their needs

  • Monitor student progress

  • Provide feedback

  • Accept responsibility for student outcomes

  • Are thoughtful and reflective about their practice


Teacher behaviors
Teacher Behaviors or teaching strategies?

  • Provide frequent positive praise and reinforcement

  • Ignore minor misbehaviors

  • Reward positive behaviors

  • Avoid power struggles with students

  • Do students like being in the classroom?

  • Students are achieving academic and social gain

  • Provide clear expectations


Teacher behaviors cont
Teacher Behaviors Cont. or teaching strategies?

  • Provide clear behavioral expectations - rules should state what students should do

  • Teacher expectations should be high for all students

  • Signal control:audible or body language to cue student

  • Blocking: teacher moves between two students to interfere


Selecting rules
Selecting Rules or teaching strategies?

  • Allow students to give input

  • Base rules on acceptable behavior

  • State rules positively

  • Select 5 or 6 rules

  • Select rules for academic and social behaviors

  • Change rules when necessary

  • Relate rules to IEP goals

  • Consider cultural differences


Abc s to behavior management
ABC’s to Behavior Management or teaching strategies?

  • Antecedent

  • Behavior

  • Consequences


Defining behavior
Defining Behavior or teaching strategies?

  • Describe behavior objectively and precisely (not: “he irritates me”)

  • Can you observe the behavior when it begins and when it stops

    • can you count the number of occurrences each day

    • can you measure the duration of the behavior

  • Can you observe what happens just before and just after it occurs


Identifying antecedents
Identifying Antecedents or teaching strategies?

  • What are the events or conditions that immediately precede the problem behavior?

  • Can you manipulate the antecedents to avoid the behavior? (e.g. providing choices for activities)


Reading antecedents
Reading Antecedents or teaching strategies?

  • Facial Expressions: tight thin lips, clenched teeth, widened eyes with nostrils flared

  • Body Posture: head down, slumped shoulders, clenched hands, sucking or chewing

  • Incidental Behavior: rapid shallow breathing, sighing, kicking, mumbling, tearing paper, breaking pencils


Identifying consequences
Identifying Consequences or teaching strategies?

  • What does the student “get” out of the behavior?

  • Are students getting attention, avoiding work, receiving stimulus, or enjoy seeing adults upset?


Changing behavior
Changing Behavior or teaching strategies?

  • Provide instruction with simple and clear directions

  • Gain student’s full attention before giving instructions

  • Provide one instruction at a time - do not provide too many different instructions

  • Monitor compliance - provide time limits

  • Provide appropriate consequences for compliance


Behavior management techniques
Behavior Management Techniques or teaching strategies?

  • Positive Reinforcement

  • Negative Reinforcement

  • Extinction

  • Response Cost Punishment

  • Proximity Control

  • Decontamination


Positive reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement or teaching strategies?

  • The positive reinforcement must be rewarding to the student

  • The reinforcers must be contingent on the behavior you want to increase

  • The reinforcers should be delivered immediately

  • Provide appropriate units of rewards for the expected unit of behavior


Negative reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement or teaching strategies?

  • Definition: reinforcing a behavior by removing or preventing something unpleasant - allows the individual to escape or avoid a negative consequence

  • Not recommended as a prominent part of classroom management

    • negative reinforcement relies on the presence or threat of negative consequences

    • deliberate negative reinforcement sets the stage for coercion/intimidation


Extinction
Extinction or teaching strategies?

  • To eliminate a behavior - you eliminate its reinforcement, the behavior no longer produces the desired effect (positive or negative)

  • Disadvantages: slow process and when extinction procedures are first implemented, the behavior will likely become worse before better


Response cost
Response Cost or teaching strategies?

  • The behavior “costs” something by withholding or withdrawing a positive reinforcer contingent on a specific misbehavior

  • Example: students receive 10 tokens at the beginning of class, every time a problem behavior occurs, the teacher gets 1 token back. The tokens can be exchanged at the end of the day or class for free time.


Proximity control
Proximity Control or teaching strategies?

  • Visual - visually monitor student activity from any position in the classroom

  • Physical - teacher positions her/himself close to each student to inhibit antecedent


Decontamination
Decontamination or teaching strategies?

  • Preventive action by inspecting classroom for two types of objects

    • Distractors: entice students to engage in off-task behaviors (e.g. toys, slide projectors, hazards: exposed wires, broken windows

    • Potential Weapons: letter openers, knives, broom handle, hammer and yard stick


Informal interventions
Informal Interventions or teaching strategies?

  • Attention for compliance - verbal praise

    • Use social praise consistently

    • Provide praise only to students who earn it

  • Ignoring: only appropriate when:

    • the target behavior is temporarily tolerable

    • the target behavior is under the influence of a reinforcer that you can control


Structured interventions
Structured Interventions or teaching strategies?

  • Group Consequences

  • Individual Consequences

  • Individual Contracts

  • Self Management


Group consequences
Group Consequences or teaching strategies?

  • Provide a set of behavior rules or expectations

  • Determine the interval of time for the contingency - the longer the interval, the more valuable the reward

  • Provide a menu of choices to avoid satiation

  • Develop a record keeping system

  • Determine criterion for reinforcement


Individual consequences
Individual Consequences or teaching strategies?

  • Surprise Tokens: reinforcers are delivered at times that are not predictable by students

  • Random Drawing: students place their name on a piece of paper and place into a jar when they comply to rules, at the end of the day, conduct a drawing for prizes


Individual contracts
Individual Contracts or teaching strategies?

  • An agreement between the teacher and the student about a desirable change in behavior

  • Parts of the contract

    • The parties to the contract

    • The target behavior

    • The goal for the target behavior

    • The time period for the contract

    • The reward available for meeting the terms

    • The penalty for failing to honor the contract


Self management
Self Management or teaching strategies?

  • Behavioral Definition: help the student choose a behavior to monitor

  • Teach the student to record behavior

    • Event recording

    • Permanent Product recording

  • Teach the student how to plot the data

  • Teach the student how to apply self-reinforcement

  • Use contracts to provide structure


Identifying coercive interactions
Identifying Coercive Interactions or teaching strategies?

  • Starts with an antecedent that is aversive and the student tries to escape or avoid the activity.

  • Two parties are trying to control each other.

    • How do these interactions start?

    • At what point could I avoid the process by disengaging from it?

    • How could I start a different interaction that does not end in a power struggle?

    • How could I try to replace coercive interactions with ones ending in positive consequences?


Teacher stress
Teacher Stress or teaching strategies?

  • Burnout Symptoms

    • Feeling of boredom, overwork, emotional exhaustion, and fatigue

    • Development of negative, cynical, or depersonalizing attitudes toward students

    • Lack of sense of accomplishment from the job


Managing teacher stress
Managing Teacher Stress or teaching strategies?

  • Time management

  • Student behavior

  • Interpersonal relationships

  • Role expectations

  • Personal concerns


Poor time management
Poor Time Management or teaching strategies?

  • Uncontrolled rushing

  • Chronic vacillation between unpleasant alternatives

  • Fatigue with many hours of unproductive activity

  • Constantly missed deadlines

  • Insufficient time for rest and personal relationships

  • Sense of being overwhelmed


Time management techniques
Time Management Techniques or teaching strategies?

  • Self-Management

    • Time analysis

    • Goal setting

    • Prioritization

    • Delegation

    • Action


Interpersonal concerns
Interpersonal Concerns or teaching strategies?

  • Poor staff relations

  • Insufficient opportunities for professional growth

  • Administrative ineffectiveness

  • Lack of recognition


Role expectations
Role Expectations or teaching strategies?

  • Teachers often set expectations around being liked, helpful, and in control

  • Role ambiguity: confusion of the scope and specific responsibilities of the job

  • Role conflict: discrepancy between teacher’s perception of the job and the perceptions of significant others


Personal solutions
Personal Solutions or teaching strategies?

  • Relaxation

  • Compartmentalized Thinking: separation between work and personal life

  • Detached Concern: do not dwell on things over which you have no control

  • Personal Time

  • Cognitive Restructuring: focus on strengths not weaknesses