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Chapter 8 Administering TCP/IP Objectives Understand basic concepts about TCP/IP Configure TCP/IP on Windows Server 2003 Troubleshoot TCP/IP and network connectivity using various utilities Administer Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in Windows Server 2003 Understanding TCP/IP

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Administering TCP/IP

objectives
Objectives
  • Understand basic concepts about TCP/IP
  • Configure TCP/IP on Windows Server 2003
  • Troubleshoot TCP/IP and network connectivity using various utilities
  • Administer Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in Windows Server 2003
understanding tcp ip
Understanding TCP/IP
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
    • Suite of protocols and utilities used for
      • Network communication
      • Troubleshooting on local networks and the Internet
understanding tcp ip continued
Understanding TCP/IP (Continued)
  • TCP/IP has become the most popular network protocol in use today, because
    • It is the protocol suite used for Internet-based communications
    • It is an open-standard, vendor-independent protocol
  • In Windows Server 2003 environments, Active Directory depends on TCP/IP and related services to function
the tcp ip protocol stack
The TCP/IP Protocol Stack
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • Operates at the transport layer
    • Responsible for the reliable transmission of data on a TCP/IP network
    • A connection-based protocol
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    • Functions at the transport layer
    • A connectionless protocol
      • Provides no guarantee of packet delivery
    • Provides speed advantages in the form of lower overhead
the tcp ip protocol stack continued
The TCP/IP Protocol Stack (Continued)
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
    • Works at the Internet layer
    • Responsible for mapping IP addresses to hardware media access control (MAC) addresses
      • Every Windows Server 2003 computer has an ARP cache that stores both dynamic and static entries
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
    • Operates at the network layer
    • Used to exchange network status and error information between two hosts
the tcp ip protocol stack continued8
The TCP/IP Protocol Stack (Continued)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
    • Operates at the network layer
    • Used to manage network and host information when a network application requires the use of multicasts to communicate
  • Internet Protocol (IP)
    • Operates at the Internet layer
    • Responsible for addressing and routing packets so that they are delivered to the correct host
    • A connectionless protocol
the tcp ip protocol stack continued9
The TCP/IP Protocol Stack (Continued)
  • IPv4
    • The current version of IP
    • Uses a 32-bit addressing scheme
    • IP addresses are generally represented using dotted-decimal notation
      • For example: 192.168.1.1
  • A subnet mask
    • Used to determine which portion of an address represents the network and which portion represents a unique host on that network
installing tcp ip
Installing TCP/IP
  • TCP/IP is installed by default if
    • The network adapter is automatically detected during the installation of Windows Server 2003
  • If TCP/IP is not installed during setup, it can be added afterward
  • Once TCP/IP has been installed, the network administrator can either
    • Manually configure addressing parameters, or
    • Implement dynamic addressing using DHCP
configuring tcp ip on windows server 2003 computers
Configuring TCP/IP on Windows Server 2003 Computers
  • All hosts on a TCP/IP network require
    • An IP address
    • A subnet mask
  • Options for configuring IP addresses on workstations and servers
    • Configure each one manually with a static IP address
    • Configure computers to obtain an IP address automatically
      • Requires a DHCP server on the network
configuring static ip addresses
Configuring Static IP Addresses
  • The decision on whether to use a static or dynamic IP-addressing method is often a function of the size of the network
  • For each network card configured to use TCP/IP, you must configure
    • An IP address
    • A subnet mask
  • TCP/IP Properties dialog box
    • Can be used to configure an IP address and a subnet mask
configuring ip addresses dynamically
Configuring IP Addresses Dynamically
  • Dynamic IP addressing
    • Possible if there is a server on the network running DHCP
    • Advantages
      • Can eliminate some administrative problems associated with configuring static IP addresses, such as
        • The chance of human error
        • IP address duplication
  • A DHCP server is configured with a range of IP addresses that will be assigned to clients on the network
automatic private ip addressing
Automatic Private IP Addressing
  • Automatic private IP addressing (APIPA)
    • Allows DHCP-enabled clients to assign themselves an IP address and subnet mask in the event that a DHCP server is unavailable
    • Provides a client with limited functionality on the network
troubleshooting tcp ip and network connectivity
Troubleshooting TCP/IP and Network Connectivity
  • TCP/IP comes with several command-line utilities that can be used to
    • Test network connectivity to make sure that computers can properly communicate over the network
    • Troubleshoot network connectivity problems
verifying tcp ip configurations
Verifying TCP/IP Configurations
  • ipconfig command
    • Can be used to verify the addressing parameters assigned to a host
    • Several parameters can be used with this command
  • winipcfg command
    • Used by Windows 9x machines to display the TCP/IP configuration settings
    • Very similar to the ipconfig utility used in Windows NT/2000/XP and Windows Server 2003
verifying tcp ip configurations continued
Verifying TCP/IP Configurations (Continued)
  • Information displayed using ipconfig or winipcfg can assist in determining whether the computer is using the correct
    • IP address
    • Subnet mask
    • Default gateway configuration
verifying network connectivity
Verifying Network Connectivity
  • Windows Server 2003 provides a variety of TCP/IP utilities to troubleshoot connectivity problems
  • ping command
    • Tests network connectivity with other hosts on the network by sending ICMP packets to a remote computer and then listening for an echo reply from the remote host
verifying network connectivity continued
Verifying Network Connectivity (Continued)
  • tracert command
    • Displays all the routers a packet must pass through in the journey to the remote host
    • Helps a network administrator better understand the true nature of a TCP/IP network communication issue
verifying network connectivity continued25
Verifying Network Connectivity (Continued)
  • pathping command
    • Combines the functions of both the ping and tracert commands
    • Sends echo request messages to each router between a source and destination host
    • Once complete, it
      • Computes results based on the packets returned from each router
      • Displays the degree of packet loss at each router
    • Can help a network administrator determine which routers are experiencing network problems or congestion
verifying network connectivity continued27
Verifying Network Connectivity (Continued)
  • route command
    • Used to view or modify the contents of a system’s local routing table
verifying network connectivity continued28
Verifying Network Connectivity (Continued)
  • netdiag command
    • Can be used to diagnose and troubleshoot a variety of network connectivity problems
    • Some of the information provided includes
      • A list of installed hotfixes
      • IP address and DNS settings
      • Domain configuration information
administering dhcp in windows server 2003
Administering DHCP in Windows Server 2003
  • To implement automatic IP addressing for network systems
    • Install a DHCP service on at least one server on the network
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
    • Used to
      • Centralize the administration of IP addresses and other options
      • Eliminate the administrative overhead of statically assigning the information to each network host
administering dhcp in windows server 2003 continued
Administering DHCP in Windows Server 2003 (Continued)
  • A DHCP scope
    • A range of IP addresses configured on a DHCP server that can be handed out to network clients
  • When a client is configured to use DHCP, it receives
    • An IP address
    • A subnet mask
    • Any other options that may have been configured for the scope
administering dhcp in windows server 2003 continued31
Administering DHCP in Windows Server 2003 (Continued)
  • A DHCP lease
    • An IP address that is assigned to a client from a DHCP server
  • A DHCP client attempts to lease an IP address in one of the following situations:
    • TCP/IP is installed and started for the first time
    • The client releases its IP address and attempts to renew another one
    • The client attempts to release a specific IP address and is denied
installing a dhcp server
Installing a DHCP Server
  • The DHCP server must be assigned
    • A static IP address
    • A subnet mask
    • A default gateway (if required on the network)
configuring dhcp scopes
Configuring DHCP Scopes
  • A DHCP scope
    • A range of IP addresses and associated settings that can be handed out to network clients configured to use automatic addressing
    • Configured using the DHCP MMC snap-in
configuring dhcp scopes continued
Configuring DHCP Scopes (Continued)
  • Guidelines for creating a DHCP scope
    • Each DHCP scope should include only unique addresses to avoid duplicate IP addresses being handed out on the network
    • Any IP addresses that have been statically assigned to clients should be excluded from a scope to avoid duplication
    • DHCP servers can be configured with multiple scopes to assign IP addresses to hosts on different subnets
configuring dhcp scopes continued36
Configuring DHCP Scopes (Continued)
  • Scope options
    • Examples: default gateway, DNS server addresses
    • Must be configured before activating the scope
  • Client reservation
    • Reserves an IP address within the scope for a particular client so it is always reassigned the same address
configuring dhcp scopes continued37
Configuring DHCP Scopes (Continued)
  • Superscope
    • Grouping of scopes created for multiple subnets on a physical network
    • Usually created to make the administration of multiple scopes easier
configuring dhcp scopes continued38
Configuring DHCP Scopes (Continued)
  • Multicasting
    • Sending a message to a group of clients, but not all clients, using a single destination address
    • Uses a special range of IP addresses known as the Class D address range
    • DHCP servers in Windows Server 2003 can assign multicast addresses to clients as well as traditional unicast addresses
authorizing a dhcp server
Authorizing a DHCP Server
  • Authorizing a DHCP server in Active Directory
    • The last step in installing a DHCP server
    • Designed to increase security and stability on a network
      • Only those Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000 DHCP servers that have been authorized by an administrator are permitted to lease IP addresses
using dhcp options
Using DHCP Options
  • Besides an IP address and a subnet mask, a range of DHCP options can be assigned to clients
using dhcp options continued
Using DHCP Options (Continued)
  • Scope options can be configured at three levels
    • Server level
      • Server options apply to all scopes configured on the DHCP server
    • Scope level
      • Scope options only apply to a specific scope and the clients that lease an IP address from that scope
    • Client level
      • Client options apply to the specified client reservation
configuring dhcp in a routed network
Configuring DHCP in a Routed Network
  • Options for implemented DHCP in a routed network
    • Install and configure a DHCP server on each subnet
    • Configure network routers to forward DHCP broadcast traffic
configuring dhcp in a routed network continued
Configuring DHCP in a Routed Network (Continued)
  • Configure a DHCP relay agent on each of the subnets
    • The DHCP relay agent included with Windows Server 2003
      • Relays DHCP broadcast messages between DHCP clients and DHCP servers across a routed network
      • Configured using the Routing and Remote Access tool
dhcp and dns integration
DHCP and DNS Integration
  • Dynamic DNS (DDNS)
    • Allows name servers and clients to automatically update the DNS database
  • Options for DNS registration
    • Dynamically update DNS A and PTR records only if requested by the DHCP clients
      • Selected by default
    • Always dynamically update DNS A and PTR records
    • Discard A and PTR records when lease is deleted
    • Dynamically update DNS A and PTR records for DHCP clients that do not request updates
maintaining dhcp services
Maintaining DHCP Services
  • Ways to monitor DHCP servers
    • Periodically look at the Event Viewer system log for any DHCP-related events
    • Use DHCP audit logging
      • Enabled by default in the DHCP MMC snap-in
      • Forces the DHCP server to place detailed event logs in the DHCP database directory
summary continued
Summary (Continued)
  • TCP/IP consists of a suite of protocols that can be used to configure, manage, and troubleshoot network connectivity
    • The protocols include TCP, UDP, ARP, IP
  • All hosts on a TCP/IP network require an IP address and a subnet mask
  • A default gateway is needed to communicate outside of the local subnet
  • IP addresses can be assigned to a host
    • Statically
    • Dynamically by using a DHCP server
summary continued50
Summary (Continued)
  • Several utilities, such as ipconfig and ping, can be used to verify and troubleshoot TCP/IP
  • Once the DHCP service is installed, you must
    • Create and activate a unique scope
    • Authorize the DHCP server in Active Directory
  • You can also add various scope options, such as the IP address of the default gateway
summary continued51
Summary (Continued)
  • Windows 2000 and XP DHCP clients automatically update resource records with the DNS server
  • The DHCP server can be configured to perform all updates and perform updates on behalf of legacy clients