1. SETTING (ST) • The time and place of action of a story
2. CHARACTER SKETCH (NF) • A shorter piece of literature that highlights a certain personality trait
3. PROTAGONIST (CH) • The central character or hero in a narrative or drama. The person whose conflict sets the plot in motion.
4. ANTAGONIST (CH) • The principal character, force, or obstacle in opposition to the protagonist of a narrative or drama
5. STATIC CHARACTER (CH) • A main character who remains the same as the plot unfolds
6. DYNAMIC CHARACTER (CH) • A main character who undergoes changes as the plot unfolds
7. FLAT CHARACTER (CH) • Characters who are described more simply than others
8. ROUND CHARACTER (CH) • A character whose many personality traits are revealed by the author
9. DIALECT – (D) • A form of language as it is spoken in a particular geographic area or by a particular social or ethnic group • PA and “Awhile”
10. POINT OF VIEW (ST) • The method of narrating a short story, novel, narrative poem, or work of non-fiction
11. 1st PERSON P.O.V. (ST) • The narrator is a character in the story and uses the pronouns I, me, and my • EX: “As my granddaughter walked toward my house, I feared for her safety…”
12. 3rd PERSON OMNISCIENT P.O.V. (ST) • “All knowing” point of view; the narrator telling the story knows everything there is to know about the characters and their problems. Ex: “Once Upon a Time…”
13. 3rd PERSON LIMITED P.O.V. (ST) • The narrator is someone outside the action who tells only what one character thinks, feels, and observes. Characters are referred to by name or by the pronouns he, she, they • Ex: “As LRRH walked through the forest, she began to get scared…
14. SIMILE (FL) • A comparison between two unlike things using the connective words like, as, than, or resembles • Ex: Her cheeks were as red as apples
15. METAPHOR (FL) • A direct comparison between two unlike things in which one thing becomes the other thing without using the connective word like, as, than, or resembles • Ex: Her cheeks were apples.
16. SHORT STORY (NF) • A piece of literature generally having one main conflict that involves the characters, keeps the story moving, and makes it interesting. • Short stories are much shorter than novels and can usually be read in one sitting.
17. NARRATOR (ST) • The character or voice from whose point of view events are told
18.CONFLICT (PS) A struggle or clash between opposing characters, or between opposing forces.
19. INTERNAL CONFLICT (PS) • A conflict that takes place within a character’s own mind; a struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions within a single person.
20. EXTERNAL CONFLICT (PS) • A conflict in which a character struggles against some outside force: another character, society as a whole, or a natural force.
21. PLOT (ST) • The sequence of events in a story
22. NARRATIVE HOOK / INITIATING ACTION (PS) • The technique the author uses to “hook” readers and get them interested in the plot of the story right away
23. EXPOSITION (PS) • The early part of a story’s plot that sets the tone, establishes the setting, introduces the characters and their conflicts, and gives the reader important background information
24. RISING ACTION (PS) • The action and events in a story that move the plot along by adding complications or expanding the conflict • Usually builds suspense to a climax as the characters take steps to resolve the conflict
25. CLIMAX (PS) • The key scene or turning point in a story when a dramatic event happens that will change the outcome of the conflict/story.
26. FALLING ACTION (PS) • Events or actions that occur after the story’s climax which tie up loose ends and lead to the resolution/denouement of the story.
27.RESOLUTION/DENOUEMENT (PS) • The final part of a story in which the conflicts are solved and the story is “closed.”
28. PERSONIFICATION (FL) • A special kind of metaphor in which a non-human thing or quality is talked about as if it were human • Ex: The desks screamed out in pain.
29. HYPERBOLE (D) • An extreme exaggeration • EX: I am so hungry I could eat a horse!
30. DIALOGUE (D) • Conversation that takes place between two characters • Look for “…”
31. TONE – (SD) • The attitude an author takes toward a subject or character • Think: tone of voice!
32. STYLE – (D) • The way in which an author chooses to write • Think: Fashion and outfits
33. ALLUSION (FL) • A reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing that is known from literature, history, religion, myth, politics, sports, science, or pop culture
34. SYMBOLISM (FL) • A symbol is a person, a place, an activity, or an object that stands for something beyond itself • EX: American flag, bald eagle
35. FORESHADOWING (ST) • The use of clues to hint at events that will occur later in the plot
36. IRONY (D) • A special kind of contrast between appearance and reality – usually one in which reality is the opposite from what it seems
37. VERBAL IRONY (D) • Verbal irony occurs when someone knowingly exaggerates or says one thing to mean another • EX: “There’s nothing like piles of homework to brighten your weekend!”
38. SITUATIONAL IRONY (D) • Situational irony is the contrast between what a reader or character expects and what actually exists or happens • EX: A snow plow stuck in the snow, a police station getting robbed, a firehouse burning down
39. DRAMATIC IRONY (D) • When the audience or the reader knows something important that a character in a play or story does not know • EX: Soap operas and bad “Slasher movies”
40. CHARACTERIZATION (CHZ) • Characterization is how a writer reveals character. • There are two types of characterization: direct and indirect.
41. DIRECT CHARACTERIZATION (CHZ) • When an author uses direct characterization, he/she directly states a character’s traits. • Example: “He was a tall man past middle age, for his hair was a vivid white; but his thick eyebrows and pointed military mustache were as black as the night from which Rainsford had come” (Connell 44). ~ Zaroff • No interpretation necessary!
42. INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION (CHZ) • When an author uses indirect characterization, it is up to the reader to draw conclusions about characters based on indirect information. • Five Ways: speech, appearance, actions, internal thoughts, what other characters think • Example: “…and his smile showed red lips and pointed teeth” (Connell 45). – Zaroff
Characterization Continued • Red lips and pointed teeth? Hmm…that is not normal! • Sounds like Connell is indirectly describing General Zaroff as being vampire-like!