Sorting through the world of diets real nutrition for real health
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Sorting Through The World of Diets: Real Nutrition for Real Health. Lynn Goldstein, MS, RD, CDN The Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health. Diet Statistics. 66.3% of adults over age 20 are overweight or obese 17% of adolescents age 12-19 are overweight

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Sorting through the world of diets real nutrition for real health l.jpg

Sorting Through The World of Diets: Real Nutrition for Real Health

Lynn Goldstein, MS, RD, CDN

The Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health


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Diet Statistics

  • 66.3% of adults over age 20 are overweight or obese

  • 17% of adolescents age 12-19 are overweight

  • 19% of children age 6-11 are overweight

  • 25% of American men and 45% of American women are on a diet on any given day

  • 95% of all dieters will regain their lost weight in 1-5 years

  • American spend over $40 billion on dieting and diet-related products each year

    .


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Health Risks Associated with Obesity

  • Heart disease/stroke

  • High blood pressure

  • Diabetes

  • Cancer (uterine, gallbladder, ovarian, cervical, breast, colon, prostate, kidney, esophagus, stomach, liver and pancreas)

  • Gallbladder disease/gallstones

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Gout

  • Breathing problems

  • GERD


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Other Nutritional Risk Factors for Cancer

  • High intakes of animal fat may increase the risk of breast, colon, prostate, and pancreas cancers

  • Increased risk for colon cancer with inactivity, diets low in fruits and vegetables, and high in red meat

  • High intakes of alcohol may increase cancer risk for mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver and breast

  • Diets high in sodium may increase risk for stomach cancer

  • Smoking can increase your risk for lung and pancreatic cancer


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Overview

  • Atkins

  • The Zone

  • South Beach

  • The Ornish Diet

  • Weight Watchers

  • USDA Food Guide Pyramid

  • Lynn’s Opinion on the best way to eat


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The Zone: Dr. Barry Sears

  • Goal is to combat insulin resistance and alter eicosanoid levels – hormonal messengers

  • Eicosanoids are produced by the body and influence blood clotting, blood pressure, immunity, and inflammation

  • Balance insulin:glucagon ratio. These are hormones produced by the pancreas that act in opposing ways to regulate blood sugar levels.

  • According to Sears when theses are in balance the body is better able to burn stored calories and prevent unwanted fat deposition


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The Zone Diet

  • Balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to keep you in “The Zone”

  • The Zone means keeping ones blood insulin at a low and consistent level and this will suppress appetite and promote fat burning

  • 40% carb, 30% protein, 30% fat, calories are restricted

  • The protein to carbohydrate ratio of the diet: 0.75 or 3gm of protein for every 4gm of carb

  • Control eicosanoids: hormones in the body that control inflammation, immune system, and cellular activity. Affected by dietary fat


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The Zone Plate

  • Divide your plate into thirds

  • 1/3 is low fat protein

  • 2/3 are fruits and vegetables

  • Finally add in a healthy monounsaturated fat

  • Each meal and snack should contain this balance

  • The Zone Pyramid: base is vegetables followed by fruits, low fat proteins, monounsaturated fats and at the top is grains and starches


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The Zone Diet: Pros and Cons

  • No long term studies to support the theory that the 40-30-30 ratio is necessary or more beneficial

  • The Zone Diet is ultimately a calorie/portion controlled diet, can be a very low calorie diet

  • Can be confusing and complicated to follow

  • Does emphasize fruits, vegetables, and high fiber foods

  • Eliminates grains from the diet

  • Does encourage exercise

  • Does encourage multivitamins omega 3 fatty acid supplements

  • Does encourage healthy fats and proteins


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Atkins Diet: Dr. Robert Atkins

  • High protein, very high fat and very low carbohydrate, unrestricted calories

  • Maintain low insulin levels, which leads to suppressed appetite, lower food consumption, and weight loss

  • Low insulin levels promote increased burning of fat for fuel and decrease fat storage

  • Leads to ketosis, burning of fat for fuel

  • Promotes meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, fats and limits fruit, vegetables and grains


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Atkins Diet

  • High saturated fat foods are not discouraged

  • Low fruit and vegetable intake leading to a lack of key vitamins, minerals, and fiber

  • Protein/fat take longer to digest and to suppress hunger leading to lower calorie intake and therefore weight loss

  • Does recommend vitamins/mineral supplements

  • Does not address importance of regular exercise


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The Dangers of the Atkins Diet

  • Harvard study indicates that regular meat consumption increased colon cancer risk by as much as 300%

  • Harvard study indicates that women with the highest intakes of animal fat had over a 75% greater risk for developing breast cancer

  • American Kidney Fund warns that high protein diets can lead to irreversible kidney damage

  • This type of diet can also increase your risk for constipation, diverticulosis, and colon cancer

  • Diets with high amounts of animal protein cause calcium loss from bone leading to osteoporosis and bone fractures


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The South Beach Diet: Dr. Arthur Agatston

  • Not all carbohydrates are created equal

  • Emphasizes the right carbs and fats with emphasis on promoting good health not just weight loss

  • Main culprits in our diet are highly processed carbohydrates found in baked goods, breads, snacks, soft drinks etc., which have been stripped of their fiber and nutrients

  • Decrease consumption of simple carbs, insulin resistance improves, weight decreases, metabolize carbohydrates properly

  • Cutting simple carbs also decreases triglyceride and cholesterol levels


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South Beach

  • Suggests avoiding low fat products because the fat is replaced with carbohydrate

  • Recommends healthy monounsaturated fatty acids such as olive oil

  • Promotes fruits, vegetables and grains in the final stage

  • 3 phases to the diet

    • Phase I – total elimination of fruit, bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, sugar, alcohol, and baked goods

    • Phase II – after 2 weeks you can begin adding back some restricted foods but in moderation

    • Phase III – less restrictive once the weight has been lost


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South Beach: Pros and Cons

  • Studies have shown and improvement in cholesterol levels and ratios as well as weight loss

  • Promotes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean proteins and does not eliminate any food group

  • Teaches portion control, promotes whole unprocessed foods, and emphasizes differences amongst healthy and unhealthy proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

  • Promotes regular exercise


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Why Do Low-Carb Diets Work?

  • Water loss = weight loss

  • Decreased appetite: fat metabolism creates ketones which can decrease appetite

  • Increased feeling of fullness: Fat and Protein take longer to digest

  • Reduced calories: low carb diets reduce your overall calorie intake because they strictly limit the variety of foods you can eat.


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Weight Watchers: Jean Nidetch

  • Does not tell people what they can or can’t eat

  • Educate people about food and encourage exercise

  • Local support groups to help keep people motivated

  • Members keep track of the calories they eat in a form of points

  • The points allotted are assigned based on your current weight and weight goal

  • Foods are assigned point values, stay within your point range and you loose weight


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Weight Watchers

  • Ultimately a calorie restricted diet

  • Promotes developing healthy eating habits

  • Not meant to count points for the rest of your life

  • Cost to the plan includes a sign up fee, $15/meeting, cost of packaged foods (optional), online service fees


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The Ornish Diet: Dr. Dean Ornish

  • Author of The Reversal Diet, The Prevention Diet, and Eat More, Weigh less

  • Diet plan to reverse/prevent heart disease

  • Low fat diet/vegetarian diet

  • 10% of calories come from fat, excludes all animal products (except for eggs and low fat dairy), nuts, seeds, avocado, chocolate, olives, and coconuts

  • Oils are eliminated except a small amount of canola oil for cooking and oil that supplies omega 3 fatty acids


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The Ornish Diet

  • Prohibits caffeine but allows moderate intake of alcohol, sugar, and salt

  • Promotes fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and high fiber foods

  • Diet alone is not sufficient to reverse heart disease and needs to be combined with exercise, yoga, meditation, stress reduction, and lifestyle changes


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The Ornish Diet: Pros and Cons

  • AHA recommends a diet with 30% fat and the average American consumes a diet with 50% fat

  • Eliminates healthy fats as well as unhealthy fats

  • Studies show vegetarians have lower rates of disease

  • Studies show this approach does work to lower cholesterol, improve ratios and promote weight loss


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The Ornish Diet: Pros and Cons

  • Very restrictive and difficult to maintain

  • Too low in fat and does not provide enough essential fatty acids

  • Does promote taking vitamin supplements, fish oil supplements

  • Promotes exercise, stress relief and lifestyle changes

  • Low fat products tend to be high in sugar and calories


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USDA Food Guide Pyramid

www.mypyramid.gov



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What Are Whole Foods?

  • Eat foods that are closest to their natural form

  • Limit processed foods

  • Avoid sugar substitutes

  • Learn to read package labels; Don’t consume foods if you don’t know what the ingredients are





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Professional Dietary Recommendations

  • The number one recommendation of the AICR is a plant based diet

  • The number one recommendation of the World Cancer Research Fund is a plant based diet

  • The number one recommendation of the NCI and the WHO is eat more fruits and vegetables

  • The number one recommendation of the ACS is eat more plant based foods and less meat


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Which Plan Is Right?

  • Include a variety of foods including vegetables, fruits, grains, lean protein sources including animal protein, soy, legumes, etc.

  • Include foods you like to eat

  • Include foods that are accessible to you

  • Fit your lifestyle and budget

  • Include the correct nutrients and calories to help you loose weight safely

  • Should encourage regular physical activity

  • Plan should not make unrealistic promises like loosing 30 lbs in 30 days



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Please Consult Your Doctor

  • Before beginning any new nutritional or weight loss program, please consult your doctor

  • For people with certain health conditions, some foods discussed in this seminar may not be appropriate.


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