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Sorting Through The World of Diets: Real Nutrition for Real Health. Lynn Goldstein, MS, RD, CDN The Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health. Diet Statistics. 66.3% of adults over age 20 are overweight or obese 17% of adolescents age 12-19 are overweight

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sorting through the world of diets real nutrition for real health

Sorting Through The World of Diets: Real Nutrition for Real Health

Lynn Goldstein, MS, RD, CDN

The Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health

diet statistics
Diet Statistics
  • 66.3% of adults over age 20 are overweight or obese
  • 17% of adolescents age 12-19 are overweight
  • 19% of children age 6-11 are overweight
  • 25% of American men and 45% of American women are on a diet on any given day
  • 95% of all dieters will regain their lost weight in 1-5 years
  • American spend over $40 billion on dieting and diet-related products each year


health risks associated with obesity
Health Risks Associated with Obesity
  • Heart disease/stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer (uterine, gallbladder, ovarian, cervical, breast, colon, prostate, kidney, esophagus, stomach, liver and pancreas)
  • Gallbladder disease/gallstones
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gout
  • Breathing problems
  • GERD
other nutritional risk factors for cancer
Other Nutritional Risk Factors for Cancer
  • High intakes of animal fat may increase the risk of breast, colon, prostate, and pancreas cancers
  • Increased risk for colon cancer with inactivity, diets low in fruits and vegetables, and high in red meat
  • High intakes of alcohol may increase cancer risk for mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver and breast
  • Diets high in sodium may increase risk for stomach cancer
  • Smoking can increase your risk for lung and pancreatic cancer
  • Atkins
  • The Zone
  • South Beach
  • The Ornish Diet
  • Weight Watchers
  • USDA Food Guide Pyramid
  • Lynn’s Opinion on the best way to eat
the zone dr barry sears
The Zone: Dr. Barry Sears
  • Goal is to combat insulin resistance and alter eicosanoid levels – hormonal messengers
  • Eicosanoids are produced by the body and influence blood clotting, blood pressure, immunity, and inflammation
  • Balance insulin:glucagon ratio. These are hormones produced by the pancreas that act in opposing ways to regulate blood sugar levels.
  • According to Sears when theses are in balance the body is better able to burn stored calories and prevent unwanted fat deposition
the zone diet
The Zone Diet
  • Balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to keep you in “The Zone”
  • The Zone means keeping ones blood insulin at a low and consistent level and this will suppress appetite and promote fat burning
  • 40% carb, 30% protein, 30% fat, calories are restricted
  • The protein to carbohydrate ratio of the diet: 0.75 or 3gm of protein for every 4gm of carb
  • Control eicosanoids: hormones in the body that control inflammation, immune system, and cellular activity. Affected by dietary fat
the zone plate
The Zone Plate
  • Divide your plate into thirds
  • 1/3 is low fat protein
  • 2/3 are fruits and vegetables
  • Finally add in a healthy monounsaturated fat
  • Each meal and snack should contain this balance
  • The Zone Pyramid: base is vegetables followed by fruits, low fat proteins, monounsaturated fats and at the top is grains and starches
the zone diet pros and cons
The Zone Diet: Pros and Cons
  • No long term studies to support the theory that the 40-30-30 ratio is necessary or more beneficial
  • The Zone Diet is ultimately a calorie/portion controlled diet, can be a very low calorie diet
  • Can be confusing and complicated to follow
  • Does emphasize fruits, vegetables, and high fiber foods
  • Eliminates grains from the diet
  • Does encourage exercise
  • Does encourage multivitamins omega 3 fatty acid supplements
  • Does encourage healthy fats and proteins
atkins diet dr robert atkins
Atkins Diet: Dr. Robert Atkins
  • High protein, very high fat and very low carbohydrate, unrestricted calories
  • Maintain low insulin levels, which leads to suppressed appetite, lower food consumption, and weight loss
  • Low insulin levels promote increased burning of fat for fuel and decrease fat storage
  • Leads to ketosis, burning of fat for fuel
  • Promotes meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, fats and limits fruit, vegetables and grains
atkins diet
Atkins Diet
  • High saturated fat foods are not discouraged
  • Low fruit and vegetable intake leading to a lack of key vitamins, minerals, and fiber
  • Protein/fat take longer to digest and to suppress hunger leading to lower calorie intake and therefore weight loss
  • Does recommend vitamins/mineral supplements
  • Does not address importance of regular exercise
the dangers of the atkins diet
The Dangers of the Atkins Diet
  • Harvard study indicates that regular meat consumption increased colon cancer risk by as much as 300%
  • Harvard study indicates that women with the highest intakes of animal fat had over a 75% greater risk for developing breast cancer
  • American Kidney Fund warns that high protein diets can lead to irreversible kidney damage
  • This type of diet can also increase your risk for constipation, diverticulosis, and colon cancer
  • Diets with high amounts of animal protein cause calcium loss from bone leading to osteoporosis and bone fractures
the south beach diet dr arthur agatston
The South Beach Diet: Dr. Arthur Agatston
  • Not all carbohydrates are created equal
  • Emphasizes the right carbs and fats with emphasis on promoting good health not just weight loss
  • Main culprits in our diet are highly processed carbohydrates found in baked goods, breads, snacks, soft drinks etc., which have been stripped of their fiber and nutrients
  • Decrease consumption of simple carbs, insulin resistance improves, weight decreases, metabolize carbohydrates properly
  • Cutting simple carbs also decreases triglyceride and cholesterol levels
south beach
South Beach
  • Suggests avoiding low fat products because the fat is replaced with carbohydrate
  • Recommends healthy monounsaturated fatty acids such as olive oil
  • Promotes fruits, vegetables and grains in the final stage
  • 3 phases to the diet
    • Phase I – total elimination of fruit, bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, sugar, alcohol, and baked goods
    • Phase II – after 2 weeks you can begin adding back some restricted foods but in moderation
    • Phase III – less restrictive once the weight has been lost
south beach pros and cons
South Beach: Pros and Cons
  • Studies have shown and improvement in cholesterol levels and ratios as well as weight loss
  • Promotes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean proteins and does not eliminate any food group
  • Teaches portion control, promotes whole unprocessed foods, and emphasizes differences amongst healthy and unhealthy proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
  • Promotes regular exercise
why do low carb diets work
Why Do Low-Carb Diets Work?
  • Water loss = weight loss
  • Decreased appetite: fat metabolism creates ketones which can decrease appetite
  • Increased feeling of fullness: Fat and Protein take longer to digest
  • Reduced calories: low carb diets reduce your overall calorie intake because they strictly limit the variety of foods you can eat.
weight watchers jean nidetch
Weight Watchers: Jean Nidetch
  • Does not tell people what they can or can’t eat
  • Educate people about food and encourage exercise
  • Local support groups to help keep people motivated
  • Members keep track of the calories they eat in a form of points
  • The points allotted are assigned based on your current weight and weight goal
  • Foods are assigned point values, stay within your point range and you loose weight
weight watchers
Weight Watchers
  • Ultimately a calorie restricted diet
  • Promotes developing healthy eating habits
  • Not meant to count points for the rest of your life
  • Cost to the plan includes a sign up fee, $15/meeting, cost of packaged foods (optional), online service fees
the ornish diet dr dean ornish
The Ornish Diet: Dr. Dean Ornish
  • Author of The Reversal Diet, The Prevention Diet, and Eat More, Weigh less
  • Diet plan to reverse/prevent heart disease
  • Low fat diet/vegetarian diet
  • 10% of calories come from fat, excludes all animal products (except for eggs and low fat dairy), nuts, seeds, avocado, chocolate, olives, and coconuts
  • Oils are eliminated except a small amount of canola oil for cooking and oil that supplies omega 3 fatty acids
the ornish diet
The Ornish Diet
  • Prohibits caffeine but allows moderate intake of alcohol, sugar, and salt
  • Promotes fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and high fiber foods
  • Diet alone is not sufficient to reverse heart disease and needs to be combined with exercise, yoga, meditation, stress reduction, and lifestyle changes
the ornish diet pros and cons
The Ornish Diet: Pros and Cons
  • AHA recommends a diet with 30% fat and the average American consumes a diet with 50% fat
  • Eliminates healthy fats as well as unhealthy fats
  • Studies show vegetarians have lower rates of disease
  • Studies show this approach does work to lower cholesterol, improve ratios and promote weight loss
the ornish diet pros and cons22
The Ornish Diet: Pros and Cons
  • Very restrictive and difficult to maintain
  • Too low in fat and does not provide enough essential fatty acids
  • Does promote taking vitamin supplements, fish oil supplements
  • Promotes exercise, stress relief and lifestyle changes
  • Low fat products tend to be high in sugar and calories
usda food guide pyramid
USDA Food Guide Pyramid

what are whole foods
What Are Whole Foods?
  • Eat foods that are closest to their natural form
  • Limit processed foods
  • Avoid sugar substitutes
  • Learn to read package labels; Don’t consume foods if you don’t know what the ingredients are
professional dietary recommendations
Professional Dietary Recommendations
  • The number one recommendation of the AICR is a plant based diet
  • The number one recommendation of the World Cancer Research Fund is a plant based diet
  • The number one recommendation of the NCI and the WHO is eat more fruits and vegetables
  • The number one recommendation of the ACS is eat more plant based foods and less meat
which plan is right
Which Plan Is Right?
  • Include a variety of foods including vegetables, fruits, grains, lean protein sources including animal protein, soy, legumes, etc.
  • Include foods you like to eat
  • Include foods that are accessible to you
  • Fit your lifestyle and budget
  • Include the correct nutrients and calories to help you loose weight safely
  • Should encourage regular physical activity
  • Plan should not make unrealistic promises like loosing 30 lbs in 30 days
please consult your doctor
Please Consult Your Doctor
  • Before beginning any new nutritional or weight loss program, please consult your doctor
  • For people with certain health conditions, some foods discussed in this seminar may not be appropriate.