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Origin and Domestication of Swine. Not herded easily – regional development many different types as a result China - 4900 BC, Great Britain – 800 BC Most intelligent – feral in a few generations – e.g. Arkansas Razorbacks some nondomesticated types…. US wild pigs? Javelinas/peccaries

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origin and domestication of swine
Origin and Domestication of Swine
  • Not herded easily – regional development
    • many different types as a result
    • China - 4900 BC, Great Britain – 800 BC
  • Most intelligent – feral in a few generations – e.g. Arkansas Razorbacks
    • some nondomesticated types…. US wild pigs?
      • Javelinas/peccaries
      • warthog, riverpig, forest hog - Africa
origin and domestication of swine2
Origin and Domestication of Swine
  • Today’s swine originated from:
    • European Wild Boar – still exist in Europe
      • Black and gray or brown
    • East Indian Pig (several types)
    • These two crossed to form modern swine breeds
swine in the usa
Swine in the USA
  • Columbus, 8 head to the USA
    • Hunted down with dogs 13 year later – killing cattle
  • DeSoto
    • 13 head, 3 yr later, 700 pigs
    • escapees were origin of razorbacks
  • Many US breeds of swine developed in the USA
    • native females crossed with European, Chinese and Russian boars
swine breeds
Swine Breeds
  • Maternal breeds – typically white; excel in litter size, fertility, milk production.
  • Paternal (sire) breeds – typically colored; excel in leanness, muscling, growth rate.
  • Corporate swine breeding companies
    • ie. DeKalb, Pig Improvement Company (PIC).
    • sell synthetic “lines” of breeding stock
    • hybrids of 2 or more breeds to form “lines”
    • sire/terminal or maternal lines
yorkshire
Yorkshire
  • maternal breed – 1st in USA
  • England (Large White)
  • white, erect ears
  • excels in:
    • litter size
    • milk production
    • fertility
chester white
Chester White
  • maternal breed – 7th in USA
  • Pennsylvania
  • white, small drooping ears
  • excels in:
    • litter size
    • milk production
    • fertility
landrace
Landrace
  • maternal breed 4th in USA
  • Denmark
  • white, large drooping ears excels in:
    • litter size
    • milk production
    • fertility
duroc
Duroc
  • paternal breed – 2nd in USA
  • New York/New Jersey
  • solid red color
  • excels in:
    • leanness
    • growth
    • muscling
hampshire
Hampshire
  • paternal sire – 3rd in USA
  • Boone County, KY
  • black, white belt
  • excels in:
    • leanness
    • growth
    • muscling
spots spotted
Spots (Spotted)
  • paternal sire – 5th in USA
  • Putnam County, IN
  • black and white spots
  • drooping ears
  • excels in:
    • leanness
    • growth
    • muscling
poland china
Poland China
  • Dual purpose – 8th in USA
  • Warren County, OH
  • black, white on legs, snout and tail
  • drooping ears
  • excels in:
    • growth
    • litter size
berkshire
Berkshire
  • Paternal sire – 6th in USA
  • England
  • black, white on legs, snout and tail
  • erect ears
  • excels in:
    • growth
    • leaness
    • muscling
slide13
Pietrain – Belgium – muscle and stress gene

http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/index.htm

Meishan – China - litters

Kele – China - lard

Vietnamese Pot Belly - ???

swine breeds14
Swine Breeds
  • Few (< 1%) purebred hogs in US
    • Used in some purebreed crossing systems
    • Source of known genetics for development of hybrids
  • Crossbreds: 20-30% more efficient in production = HETEROSIS
  • Use terminal and maternal lines and corporate hybrids
    • e.g. Landrace x Yorkshire sows
    • Hampshire x Duroc boars
premier swine breeding company
Premier Swine Breeding Company

MATERNAL

LINES

TERMINAL

LINES

ideal market hog primary product
Ideal Market Hog-Primary Product
  • Standards set by National Pork Board
    • Market weight = 260 lbs
    • Days to 260 lbs = 160 days avg.
    • Loin eye area = 6.8 sq. in. avg.
    • High fat free lean index
    • from terminal crossbreeding program
    • free of the stress gene
    • from maternal line weaning 25 pigs/sow/year
grading pork carcasses
Grading Pork Carcasses
  • No standard Quality grades
    • Must have “acceptable” quality to meet standard Grading System
  • USDA # 1, 2, 3, 4, Utility
  • Lean yield from ham, loin, blade shoulder and picnic shoulder
    • 1 > 53%
    • 2 50 – 52.9
    • 3 47- 49.9
    • 4 < 47
  • Based upon backfat and muscling score
pork quality pse pork19
Pork Quality – PSE pork
  • Pale, soft and exudative
    • less appealing to consumer
    • water loss affects yield and profitability for processors
    • associated with porcine stress syndrome
      • homozygous recessive
      • lean, heavily muscled hogs
secondary pork products
Secondary Pork Products
  • Sows – Weight?
    • 270-600 #s Jimmy Dean Sausage
  • Boars
    • Taint ….Pizza (all weights)
reproductive management
Reproductive Management
  • Maximize use of facilities
  • All in – all out system
    • synchronize estrus for these to occur at same time
      • breeding; gestation; farrowing; weaning; finishing
reproductive management22
Reproductive Management
  • Puberty ~ 6 months of age
  • First breeding ~ 8 months and 250 lbs – Why wait?
    • Increase litter size
    • Increase longevity of sow
  • Gestation Length?
    • 114 days
  • Litter size – born, born alive, and weaned?
    • ~11, 10 and 9, respectively
    • Why does this decrease?
      • Environmental, management (sizing litters), etc.
reproductive management23
Reproductive Management
  • Age at Weaning? or How long is lactation period?
    • 10 – 28 days
    • Peak lactation 21 d after farrowing – why wean so early?
      • Health of the baby pigs – Why?
      • Cheaper to feed directly than to feed sow to make milk
  • Rebreeding – when rebred for a second litter?
    • First insemination at 4-7 days post-weaning
    • Weaning synchronizes estrus
annual productivity of swine
Annual productivity of swine
  • Litters/sow/year?
    • Weaned at 2 weeks of age
    • Inseminated 7 days post – weaning
      • Assumes pregnant at 21 days post farrowing??

Lactation & Breeding 2

Lactation & Breeding 3

Breeding 1

Gestation 1 – 114 days

Gestation 2 – 114 days

Gestation 3

Jan

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Months

annual productivity of swine25
Annual productivity of swine
  • Litters/sow/year?
    • Three 114 d gestations and three 21 d post partum periods = 405 days = 1.11 year for 3 litters
    • = 3/1.11 or 2.7 litters/year

Lactation & Breeding 2

Lactation & Breeding 3

Breeding 1

Gestation 1 – 114 days

Gestation 2 – 114 days

Gestation 3

Jan

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Months

annual productivity of swine26
Annual productivity of swine
  • Litters/sow/year?
    • Three 114 d gestations and three 21 d post partum periods = 405 days = 1.11 year for 3 litters
    • = 3/1.11 or 2.7 litters/year
  • In a perfect herd of 100 sows
    • 100 sows x 2.7 litters/sow x 9 pigs/litter = 2430 pig/year
  • Is this what happens in the industry??
annual productivity of swine27
Annual productivity of swine
  • Factors that affect # pigs produced?
    • Age at weaning?
    • Culling rate?
    • # pigs weaned/sow
  • In a realistic situation, often have a 30% culling rate for each gestation. e.g.
    • 100 sows x 9 pigs/litter = 900 pigs from first gestation
    • 70 sows x 9 pigs/litter = 630 pigs from second gestation
    • 49 sows x 9 pigs/litter = 441 pigs from third gestation
  • This equals 1971 pigs/1.11 years, or 1791 pigs/year
annual productivity of swine28
Annual productivity of swine
  • This equals 1971 pigs/1.11 years, or 1791 pigs/year
  • 1791 pigs/9 pigs in a litter = 199 litters
  • 199 litters from original 100 sows in a year =
    • 1.99 litters/sow/year.
    • National average is ~ 2 litters/sow/year
health management
Health Management
  • Disease PREVENTION
    • Antibiotic feed additives
      • ie. Mecadox, Tylan, etc.
    • Vaccinations
    • Biosecurity
      • Minimize disease transmission by:
        • Limited introduction of new animals - AI
        • Shower in – shower out
        • vehicles, equipment, rodents, flies, etc.
nutritional management
Nutritional Management
  • Monogastric – Limited ability to digest fiber
  • Finely ground feed or pellets
  • Typical ration ingredients:
    • Corn – energy
    • Soybean meal – protein (lysine 1st limiting)
    • Dicalcium phosphate; limestone – Ca, P
    • Vitamin, Trace mineral premix
nutritional management32
Nutritional Management
  • Boars & gestating females
    • Restricted & individual feeding
  • Lactating sows
    • Increased energy & protein
    • Minimize weight loss
  • Nursing piglets
    • Creep feed
nutritional management33
Nutritional Management
  • Weaned (Nursery) pigs
    • 20-22% protein (dried plasma; whey)
    • Affects health & performance later
  • Grower (Finisher) Pigs
    • maximize growth
      • energy & protein
    • ad libitum
      • always feed available
stages of production
Stages of Production
  • Breeding & Farrowing
    • Gestation, Farrowing, Breeding
  • Nursery/Feeder Pigs
  • Finishing/Grower
types of swine operations
Types of Swine Operations
  • Integrated corporate production
    • ie. Murphy – Brown, LLC., Premium Standard
    • Farrow-to-Finish (farrow = swine birthing)
    • All segments but at different sites for biosecurity
      • Seedstock, breeding/farrowing, nursery/feeder pigs, finishers
types of swine operations36
Types of Swine Operations
  • Purebred or Seedstock production
    • PIC – Pig Improvement Company, DEKALB, etc.
    • sell purebred or planned crossbred breeding stock
    • sell boars, gilts
types of swine operations37
Types of Swine Operations
  • Nursery/Feeder Pig production
    • sell weaned pigs (10-15 lbs) or feeder pigs (35-50 lbs)
  • Grower/Finisher
    • purchase feeder or weaned pigs
    • sell market hogs to harvest
    • maintain breeding stock

Can be contracted by corporations

types of swine operations38
Types of Swine Operations
  • Farrow-to-finish
    • Retain breeding stock
    • Bred females farrow
    • Feed pigs to harvest weights (250 lbs)
    • Sell finished pigs to harvest
    • Smaller farms
swine facilities
Swine Facilities

Finisher

Free Range

Nursery or Finisher with Lagoons

Sow Farm

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