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Open Access to Legacy Taxonomic Literature

Open Access to Legacy Taxonomic Literature

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Open Access to Legacy Taxonomic Literature

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  1. Open Access to Legacy Taxonomic Literature The Biodiversity Heritage Library Martin R. Kalfatovic Smithsonian Institution Libraries Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  2. Biodiversity Heritage Library In any well-appointed Natural History Library there should be found every book and every edition of every book dealing in the remotest way with the subjects concerned. One never knows wherein one edition differs from or supplements the other and unless these are on the same table at the same time it is not possible to collate them properly. Moreover for accurate work it is necessary for the student to verify every reference he may find; it is not enough to copy from a previous author; he must verify each reference itself from the original. Charles Davies Sherborn, Epilogue to Index Animalium, March 1922 Charles Davies Sherborn (1861-1942) Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  3. Biodiversity Heritage Library Yet another physical difficulty is the task of assembling the library and indexes which will enable the student to work under proper conditions…. the beginner must now be prepared to spend liberally, or else must establish himself in an institution where a large library exists; if he work by himself with only a few books, he will have to confine himself to a very narrow specialty indeed. 'The Limitations of Taxonomy' by J.M. Aldrich, Science, April 22, 1927, vol. LXV, no. 1686, p.381 Insecta. Diptera. Volume I (1886-1901) Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  4. Biodiversity Heritage Library The cited half-life of publications in taxonomy is longer than in any other scientific discipline * * * The decay rate is longer than in any scientific discipline - Macro-economic case for open access, Tom Moritz Levinus Vincent Elenchus tabularum, pinacothecarum, 1719 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  5. Biodiversity Heritage Library The Taxonomic Impediment “The taxonomic impediment is a term that describes the gaps of knowledge in our taxonomic system” - Darwin Declaration, 1998 Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de BuffonHistoire naturelle : générale et particulière (Oiseaux), 1799-1808 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  6. Biodiversity Heritage Library The essential requirements for accessing and utilising this global information are: • that there is access to information held in national/regional/global collections • that electronic data is efficiently captured and provided in useable form • that existing information held in literature and by current experts is made available electronically • that stability of scientific names of organisms, used to access this information, is promoted • - Darwin Declaration, 1998 Thylacine from Philip Lutley Sclater, Guide to the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London, 1891 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  7. Biodiversity Heritage Library Convention on Biological Diversity: Article 17 … exchange of information shall include exchange of results of technical, scientific and socio-economic research … It shall also, where feasible, include repatriation of information. Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de BuffonHistoire naturelle : générale et particulière (Oiseaux), 1799-1808 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  8. Biodiversity Heritage Library Biologia Centrali-Americana Edited by Frederick Ducane Godman and Osbert Salvin London : Pub. for the editors by R. H. Porter, 1879-1915 Chart showing distribution in public collections of the complete 63 volume sets held worldwide. 2 complete copies in Central America held at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  9. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  10. Biodiversity Heritage Library Vishwas Chavan travels a lot. An informatician based at the National Chemical Laboratory in Pune, India, he collects data on what types of animal live where in India to enter into a biodiversity database … Much of the information Chavan seeks is in old, out-of-print tomes … To find them, Chavan has spent years trailing around libraries. He dreams of the day when books such as these are scanned and made available as digital files on the Internet. “Science in the Web Age: The Real Death of Print” by Andreas von Bubnoff Nature 438, 550-552 1 December 2005 Henry Walter Bates The Naturalist on the River Amazons, 1863 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  11. Biodiversity Heritage Library Library and Laboratory: the Marriage of Research, Data and Taxonomic Literature London, February 2005 Eighty participants from 22 countries gathered to discuss the status and future of access to the taxonomic literature and to propose an agenda for actions that would improve the research environment for taxonomy. The participants were taxonomists; librarians; publishers; representatives of learned and professional societies, private foundations and government agencies; and specialists in information and communications technology. Progne subis- Purple Martin Illustrations of the nest and eggs of birds of Ohio, 1879-1886 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  12. Biodiversity Heritage Library May 2005, the libraries represented at the London meeting gathered in Washington to lay out the ground work for the Biodiversity Heritage Library. Representatives of a number of major natural history and botanical libraries met at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., with the support of the Smithsonian Institution, to develop a strategy and operational plan to digitize the published literature of biodiversity held in their respective collections and to make that literature available for open access and responsible use as a part of a global “biodiversity commons.” Ernest Ingersoll Hand-book to the National Museum … Smithsonian Institution, 1886 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  13. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Museums • American Museum of Natural History (New York) • Natural History Museum (London) • Smithsonian Institution (Washington) Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  14. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Museums • American Museum of Natural History (New York) • Natural History Museum (London) • Smithsonian Institution (Washington) Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  15. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Museums • American Museum of Natural History (New York) • Natural History Museum (London) • Smithsonian Institution (Washington) Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  16. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Botanical Gardens • Missouri Botanical Garden • New York Botanical Garden • Royal Botanic Garden, Kew Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  17. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Botanical Gardens • Missouri Botanical Garden • New York Botanical Garden • Royal Botanic Garden, Kew Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  18. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Botanical Gardens • Missouri Botanical Garden • New York Botanical Garden • Royal Botanic Garden, Kew Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  19. Biodiversity Heritage Library • University Libraries • Botany Libraries, Harvard University • Ernst Meyer Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  20. Biodiversity Heritage Library • University Libraries • Botany Libraries, Harvard University • Ernst Meyer Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  21. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Bioinformatics Member • Marine Biological Laboratory / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library (MBL/WHOI) Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  22. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Bioinformatics Member • Marine Biological Laboratory / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library (MBL/WHOI) • uBio project of MBL/WHOI Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  23. Biodiversity Heritage Library Affiliated Partner: Internet Archive Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  24. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  25. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  26. Biodiversity Heritage Library Mandates: Open Access: all content can be reused, repurposed, reformatted, sliced, diced, scraped, and ??? Reptilia and Batrachia. (1885-1902) by Albert C.L.G.  Günther Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  27. Biodiversity Heritage Library Mandates: Opt in Copyright Model: The BHL will actively work with professional societies and associations to integrate their publications into the BHL in a way that serves the societies’ missions and goals Reptilia and Batrachia. (1885-1902) by Albert C.L.G.  Günther Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  28. Biodiversity Heritage Library Metadata Repository Store all bibliographic metadata for the member libraries; create volume, part, piece metadata; ingest page level metadata at scanning level for the creation of page level Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs) for linking to other taxonomic services Jacob Christian SchäfferElementa entomologica . . . 1766. Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  29. BHL Metadata Repository Member Catalog A Member Catalog B Bib. Records Bib. Records Item Records Item Records Item Records Item Records Item Records Item Records BHL MR Bib Records Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  30. BHL Metadata Repository Member Catalog A Member Catalog B Bib. Records Bib. Records Item Records Item Records Item Records Item Records Item Records Item Records BHL MR Bib Records BHL MR Item Records BHL MR Repository Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  31. BHL Metadata Repository Z39.50 Fetch: Internet Archive from BHL (Current Practice) Could be some other way to depending on metadata scheme (e.g. OAI-PHM?) BHL MR Bib Records Internet Archive BHL MR Item Records Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  32. BHL Metadata Repository First Ingest Internet Archive Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  33. BHL Metadata Repository Sub-Element Map Internet Archive Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  34. BHL Metadata Repository Page Structure Map Internet Archive If possible, auto create explicit automated page numbering at this point Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  35. BHL Metadata Repository II Z39.50 Fetch: BHL from Internet Archive or some other way to upload matching description with the scanned images. BHL MR Bib Records BHL MR Item Records Internet Archive Sub-element & page /image structure map Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  36. BHL Metadata Repository II Bib/Sub-element/PageStructure Map BHL MR BHL MR Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  37. BHL Metadata Repository II BHL Public Interface BHL MR BHL MR BHL MR Internet Archive Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  38. BHL Metadata Repository II Taxonomic Web Services e.g. CBOL, GBIF, ITIS, GenBank, INOTAXA documents, etc. BHL Public Interface BHL MR BHL MR BHL MR Internet Archive Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  39. Biodiversity Heritage Library “Guano diggers among the albatrosses. Laysan Island” So, we have page pictures, we have some metadata, but what good is it? I fear that with millions of books, our users will just be left like these guano diggers in Hawaii. Lionel Walter RothschildTheavifauna of Laysan and the neighboring islands, 1893-1900 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  40. Biodiversity Heritage Library Agatea violaris Type specimen from the U.S. National Herbarium (Smithsonian Institution) collected by the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  41. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  42. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  43. Biodiversity Heritage Library • Specimen • Plate or other visual image • Taxonomic description Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  44. Biodiversity Heritage Library Eleazar AlbinAnatural history of English song-birds…, 1741 Massachusetts. Zoological and Botanical SurveyReports on the fishes, reptiles and birds of Mass., 1839 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  45. Biodiversity Heritage Library BHL Taxonomic Intelligence Tool - Developed by David Remsen and staff MBL/WHOI Library Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de BuffonHistoire naturelle : générale et particulière (Oiseaux), 1799-1808 Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  46. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  47. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  48. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  49. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

  50. Biodiversity Heritage Library Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign