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Open Access to Legacy Taxonomic Literature The Biodiversity Heritage Library Martin R. Kalfatovic Smithsonian Institution Libraries Biodiversity Heritage Library

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Open Access to Legacy Taxonomic Literature


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open access to legacy taxonomic literature

Open Access to Legacy Taxonomic Literature

The Biodiversity Heritage Library

Martin R. Kalfatovic

Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library
Biodiversity Heritage Library

In any well-appointed Natural History Library there should be found every book and every edition of every book dealing in the remotest way with the subjects concerned. One never knows wherein one edition differs from or supplements the other and unless these are on the same table at the same time it is not possible to collate them properly. Moreover for accurate work it is necessary for the student to verify every reference he may find; it is not enough to copy from a previous author; he must verify each reference itself from the original.

Charles Davies Sherborn, Epilogue to Index Animalium, March 1922

Charles Davies Sherborn (1861-1942)

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library3
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Yet another physical difficulty is the task of assembling the library and indexes which will enable the student to work under proper conditions…. the beginner must now be prepared to spend liberally, or else must establish himself in an institution where a large library exists; if he work by himself with only a few books, he will have to confine himself to a very narrow specialty indeed.

'The Limitations of Taxonomy' by J.M. Aldrich, Science, April 22, 1927, vol. LXV, no. 1686, p.381

Insecta. Diptera. Volume I (1886-1901)

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library4
Biodiversity Heritage Library

The cited half-life of publications in taxonomy is longer than in any other scientific discipline

* * *

The decay rate is longer than in any scientific discipline

- Macro-economic case for open access, Tom Moritz

Levinus Vincent

Elenchus tabularum, pinacothecarum, 1719

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

The Taxonomic Impediment

“The taxonomic impediment is a term that describes the gaps of knowledge in our taxonomic system”

- Darwin Declaration, 1998

Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de BuffonHistoire naturelle : générale et particulière (Oiseaux), 1799-1808

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library6
Biodiversity Heritage Library

The essential requirements for accessing and utilising this global information are:

  • that there is access to information held in national/regional/global collections
  • that electronic data is efficiently captured and provided in useable form
  • that existing information held in literature and by current experts is made available electronically
  • that stability of scientific names of organisms, used to access this information, is promoted
  • - Darwin Declaration, 1998

Thylacine from Philip Lutley Sclater,

Guide to the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London, 1891

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

Convention on Biological Diversity: Article 17

… exchange of information shall include exchange of results of technical, scientific and socio-economic research … It shall also, where feasible, include repatriation of information.

Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de BuffonHistoire naturelle : générale et particulière (Oiseaux), 1799-1808

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library8
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Biologia Centrali-Americana

Edited by Frederick Ducane Godman and Osbert Salvin

London : Pub. for the editors by R. H. Porter, 1879-1915

Chart showing distribution in public collections of the complete 63 volume sets held worldwide.

2 complete copies in Central America held at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library9
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library10
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Vishwas Chavan travels a lot. An informatician based at the National Chemical Laboratory in Pune, India, he collects data on what types of animal live where in India to enter into a biodiversity database … Much of the information Chavan seeks is in old, out-of-print tomes … To find them, Chavan has spent years trailing around libraries. He dreams of the day when books such as these are scanned and made available as digital files on the Internet.

“Science in the Web Age: The Real Death of Print”

by Andreas von Bubnoff

Nature 438, 550-552 1 December 2005

Henry Walter Bates

The Naturalist on the River Amazons, 1863

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

Library and Laboratory: the Marriage of Research, Data and Taxonomic Literature

London, February 2005

Eighty participants from 22 countries gathered to discuss the status and future of access to the taxonomic literature and to propose an agenda for actions that would improve the research environment for taxonomy. The participants were taxonomists; librarians; publishers; representatives of learned and professional societies, private foundations and government agencies; and specialists in information and communications technology.

Progne subis- Purple Martin

Illustrations of the nest and eggs of birds of Ohio, 1879-1886

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

May 2005, the libraries represented at the London meeting gathered in Washington to lay out the ground work for the Biodiversity Heritage Library.

Representatives of a number of major natural history and botanical libraries met at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., with the support of the Smithsonian Institution, to develop a strategy and operational plan to digitize the published literature of biodiversity held in their respective collections and to make that literature available for open access and responsible use as a part of a global “biodiversity commons.”

Ernest Ingersoll

Hand-book to the National Museum … Smithsonian Institution, 1886

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Museums
    • American Museum of Natural History (New York)
    • Natural History Museum (London)
    • Smithsonian Institution (Washington)

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library14
Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Museums
    • American Museum of Natural History (New York)
    • Natural History Museum (London)
    • Smithsonian Institution (Washington)

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library15
Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Museums
    • American Museum of Natural History (New York)
    • Natural History Museum (London)
    • Smithsonian Institution (Washington)

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library16
Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Botanical Gardens
    • Missouri Botanical Garden
    • New York Botanical Garden
    • Royal Botanic Garden, Kew

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library17
Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Botanical Gardens
    • Missouri Botanical Garden
    • New York Botanical Garden
    • Royal Botanic Garden, Kew

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library18
Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Botanical Gardens
    • Missouri Botanical Garden
    • New York Botanical Garden
    • Royal Botanic Garden, Kew

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library19
Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • University Libraries
    • Botany Libraries, Harvard University
    • Ernst Meyer Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library20
Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • University Libraries
    • Botany Libraries, Harvard University
    • Ernst Meyer Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Bioinformatics Member
    • Marine Biological Laboratory / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library (MBL/WHOI)

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Bioinformatics Member
    • Marine Biological Laboratory / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library (MBL/WHOI)
    • uBio project of MBL/WHOI

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

Affiliated Partner: Internet Archive

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library24
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library25
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

Mandates:

Open Access: all content can be reused, repurposed, reformatted, sliced, diced, scraped, and ???

Reptilia and Batrachia. (1885-1902) by Albert C.L.G.  Günther

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

Mandates:

Opt in Copyright Model: The BHL will actively work with professional societies and associations to integrate their publications into the BHL in a way that serves the societies’ missions and goals

Reptilia and Batrachia. (1885-1902) by Albert C.L.G.  Günther

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library28
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Metadata Repository

Store all bibliographic metadata for the member libraries; create volume, part, piece metadata; ingest page level metadata at scanning level for the creation of page level Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs) for linking to other taxonomic services

Jacob Christian SchäfferElementa entomologica . . . 1766.

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

bhl metadata repository
BHL Metadata Repository

Member Catalog A

Member Catalog B

Bib. Records

Bib. Records

Item Records

Item Records

Item Records

Item Records

Item Records

Item Records

BHL MR Bib Records

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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BHL Metadata Repository

Member Catalog A

Member Catalog B

Bib. Records

Bib. Records

Item Records

Item Records

Item Records

Item Records

Item Records

Item Records

BHL MR Bib Records

BHL MR Item Records

BHL MR Repository

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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BHL Metadata Repository

Z39.50 Fetch: Internet Archive from BHL (Current Practice)

Could be some other way to depending on metadata scheme (e.g. OAI-PHM?)

BHL MR Bib Records

Internet Archive

BHL MR Item Records

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

bhl metadata repository32
BHL Metadata Repository

First Ingest

Internet Archive

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

bhl metadata repository33
BHL Metadata Repository

Sub-Element Map

Internet Archive

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

bhl metadata repository34
BHL Metadata Repository

Page Structure Map

Internet Archive

If possible, auto create explicit automated page numbering at this point

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

bhl metadata repository ii
BHL Metadata Repository II

Z39.50 Fetch: BHL from Internet Archive or some other way to upload matching description with the scanned images.

BHL MR Bib Records

BHL MR Item Records

Internet Archive

Sub-element & page /image structure map

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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BHL Metadata Repository II

Bib/Sub-element/PageStructure Map

BHL MR

BHL MR

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

bhl metadata repository ii37
BHL Metadata Repository II

BHL Public Interface

BHL MR

BHL MR

BHL MR

Internet Archive

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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BHL Metadata Repository II

Taxonomic Web Services

e.g. CBOL, GBIF, ITIS, GenBank, INOTAXA documents, etc.

BHL Public Interface

BHL MR

BHL MR

BHL MR

Internet Archive

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

“Guano diggers among the albatrosses. Laysan Island”

So, we have page pictures, we have some metadata, but what good is it? I fear that with millions of books, our users will just be left like these guano diggers in Hawaii.

Lionel Walter RothschildTheavifauna of Laysan and the neighboring islands, 1893-1900

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library40
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Agatea violaris

Type specimen from the U.S. National Herbarium (Smithsonian Institution) collected by the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library41
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library42
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Specimen
  • Plate or other visual image
  • Taxonomic description

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library44
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Eleazar AlbinAnatural history of English song-birds…, 1741

Massachusetts. Zoological and Botanical SurveyReports on the fishes, reptiles and birds of Mass., 1839

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

BHL Taxonomic Intelligence Tool

- Developed by David Remsen and staff MBL/WHOI Library

Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de BuffonHistoire naturelle : générale et particulière (Oiseaux), 1799-1808

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library46
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library47
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library48
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library49
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

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Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library51
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library52
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library53
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library54
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

biodiversity heritage library55
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

open access to legacy taxonomic literature56

Open Access to Legacy Taxonomic Literature

The Biodiversity Heritage Library

Martin R. Kalfatovic

Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Refactoring Natural History Literature, April 17-18, 2006

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign