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IGE105 – Communication Technology in a Changing World. Week 6 Dr. Ken Cosh. Recap. Introduction to Semiotics Saussure Dyadic Model Peirce Triadic Model. This Week. A little more on Semiotics Communication and Collaboration Models Human Computer Interaction (Dix – Chapter 14).

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  • Introduction to Semiotics
    • Saussure
      • Dyadic Model
    • Peirce
      • Triadic Model
this week
This Week
  • A little more on Semiotics
  • Communication and Collaboration Models
    • Human Computer Interaction (Dix – Chapter 14)
but first
But First
  • Remember “Layers”
    • TCP/IP
      • Application Layer
      • Transport Layer
      • Internet Layer
      • Link Layer
    • Today we’ll look at a different set of layers
      • The Semiotic Ladder
the semiotic ladder
The Semiotic Ladder
  • Social World
  • Pragmatics
  • Semantics
  • Syntactics
  • Empirics
  • Physical World
the semiotic ladder6
The Semiotic Ladder
  • Physical World
the semiotic ladder7
The Semiotic Ladder
  • Empirics
  • Physical World
the semiotic ladder8
The Semiotic Ladder
  • Syntactics
  • Empirics
  • Physical World
the semiotic ladder9
The Semiotic Ladder
  • Semantics
  • Syntactics
  • Empirics
  • Physical World
the semiotic ladder10
The Semiotic Ladder
  • Pragmatics
  • Semantics
  • Syntactics
  • Empirics
  • Physical World
the semiotic ladder11
The Semiotic Ladder
  • Social World
  • Pragmatics
  • Semantics
  • Syntactics
  • Emprirics
  • Physical World
communicating via signs
Communicating via signs
  • If all communication is carried by signs
  • For communication to succeed we need to consider all the rungs on the Semiotic Ladder
face to face communication
Face to Face Communication
  • Primitive
    • In terms of technology
  • Sophisticated
    • In terms of complex interplay between different channels
    • Not just speech and hearing
      • Also body language & eye gaze
personal space
Personal Space
  • How much space do you need?
    • Different cultures allow different distances
    • Environmental factors (such as noise) affect space
    • But can you be comfortable?
  • What does this have to do with technology?
  • Can I control the zoom on Tom’s camera, and he control mine?
eye gaze
Eye Gaze
  • What’s it for?
    • Lovers
    • Checking attention
    • Conveying interest / confusion / boredom
    • Authority / Power
    • Building a bond
  • How about on video conferences?
  • “Lets move this one there…”
  • Technological Assistance
    • Group Pointer
    • Shared Work Surface
the power of um
The Power of “Um”
  • Aha!
  • Erm!
  • Hmmm…!
  • Er!
  • Um!
  • Uhh!
back channels
“Back Channels”
  • For Confirmation / Interruption
  • Electronic communication reduces the channels available;
    • Sight
    • Sound
    • Gesture
  • As we lose channels, we lose back channel responses
  • Context helps us understand, and back channels provide context;
  • Internal context
    • Depending on previous utterances
  • External context
    • Depending on the environment
turn taking
Turn taking
  • A conversation is a series of turns…
    • I could request a ‘turn’ with “well, uh…”
    • You could offer a ‘turn’ with “what do you think?”
  • Often turns are signified with a pause or gap in conversation.
    • We live in a physical world, and physics says communication can not be instant…
      • Quick(er), but not instant
    • Given these pauses are short, often the pauses are lost during telecommunication
      • Leading to confused conversations
  • A: Isn’t that beautiful?
  • B: The symmetry of the branches
  • A: How some people can dislike them I can’t understand.
  • B: Yes, the rangers should cull those deer, they strip the bark terribly in winter…
  • We are efficient at repairing communication breakdowns
  • However with electronic communication
    • Lack of redundant channels
    • Reduced turn taking frequency
    • Reduced back channels
  • In reality it isn’t the breakdowns that cause problems, but the inability to recover from them.
constructing a shared understanding
Constructing a shared understanding
  • What is different between reading a book, and sitting in class?
    • Here we can build a common ground
  • Much of communication is concerned with building common ground
    • Utterances should be relevant & helpful
      • Relevant – continuing the current topic
      • Helpful – considering the listeners knowledge & understanding
where is it
Where is it?
  • “Just passed the pub…”
    • Assuming we know which pub, this is relevant and helpful
  • It creates a common ground within the conversation
    • It doesn’t matter that “A” thinks of the pub with memories of a great party, while “B” has never been, but has seen the sign.
    • i.e. we don’t necessarily need the same sense of individual signifiers if the conversation leads us to the same global sense.
text based communication
Text Based Communication
  • Common & Familiar
    • From letters to Google wave
  • Very different style from face-to-face communication
    • Discrete: directed messages such as email, with no explicit connection between messages
    • Linear: Participants messages added in temporal order to a single transcript
    • Non-linear: messages are linked together in hypertext fashion
    • Spatial: Messages arranged across 2D surface
back channels34
Back Channels
  • Text based communication loses channels
    • Gesture, Body Language, Facial Expressions
  • Loss of Affective State of speaker
    • Happy, Sad, Angry, Humorous
  • Loss of Illocutionary Force of the message
    • Importance, Urgency
  • Emoticons are often used to convey this
    • :-)
    • ;-)
  • ASL RL
  • ROFLMAO 555
  • J/K L8R
  • NOOB
  • Text based communication is often more heated, by calmer conversants
    • Stronger language, as message has to be explicit
    • Emotionally distanced, often time to calm down between messages
email culture
Email culture
  • Becoming more important
    • Originally Email was unreliable
      • “I didn’t get it” ;)
    • No guilt felt
    • Originally we wouldn’t react the same way to an email as a formal letter
  • But different cultures treat email differently
turn taking39
Turn Taking
  • Different environments
    • Cotemporality?
      • Message is seen as soon as it is typed
    • Simultaneity?
      • Participants send and receive at the same time
    • Sequential?
      • Utterances are ordered
  • How often have you misunderstood an MSN conversation due to sequential issues?
  • A: How many should be in the group?
  • B: Maybe this could be one of the four strongest reasons?
  • A: What do you mean?
  • B: I agree
  • A: Hang on?
  • B: What did you mean?
group discussions
Group discussions
  • When multiple users chat simultaneously, these issues grow:
    • Alison: Brian’s got some lovely roses
    • Brian: I’m afraid they are covered in greenfly
    • Clarise: I’ve seen them, they’re beautiful
  • Google Wave?
group project
Group Project
  • How did the Google Docs project go?
  • How did you work as a group?
  • In what ways was Google Docs useful?
  • In what ways was Google Docs unhelpful?
  • What alternative collaboration means would be useful?