1844-1900 Born near Leipzig The son of a Lutheran priest Studied philology at Bonn and Leipzig Universities Influenced by Schopenhauer and Romanticism 1868 – Appointed as the Chair of classical philology at Basle University. 1879 – Retirement (for health problems). Major Works
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“What is good? Everything that heightens the feeling of power in man, the will to power, power itself.
What is bad? Everything that is born of weakness.” (699)
“The weak and the failures shall perish: first principle of our love of man. And they shall even be given every possible assistance. What is more harmful than any vice? Active pity for all the failures and all the weak: Christianity.” (700)
Herd morality (yet, the herd morality is conservative.
“But what if the reverse were true?” (20)
“This emancipated individual, with the actual innocent like children and life turns into a right to make promises, this master of a free will, this sovereign man –how should he not be aware of his superiority over all those who lack the right to make promises and stand as their own guarantors, of how much trust, how much fear, how much reverence he arouses –he ‘deserves” all three- and of how this mastery over himself also necessarily gives him mastery over circumstances, over nature, and over all more short-willed and unreliable creatures?” (60)
“The ‘free’ man... Also possesses his innocent like children and life turns into a measure of value” (60)- “the strong and reliable (those with the right to make promises) –that is, all those who promise like sovereigns, reluctantly, rarely, slowly... Whose trust is a mark of distinction” these men also show -responsibility -power over overselves and over fate
The human species created a mnemonics through a system of cruelty (and religion is but a sophisticated such a system)
Memory is needed for us to live in society (promises)
There is no cure for suffering, and we must face it.
“To see others suffer does one good, to make others suffer even more...Without cruelty there is no festival...” (67)(ancient Gods, “the friends of cruel spectacles)
“A legal order thought as of sovereign universal-as a means of preventing all struggle in general… would be a principle hostile to life.”
Contracts – Debts – Guilt – Compensation –Punishment
(“duty” appears in the sphere of legal obligations structuring all social relationships and morality)
“the feeling of guilt... Is the oldest and most primitive personal relationship” (70)
Punishment means of WarYet, “[a]s the power and self-confidence of a community increase, the penal law always become more moderate” (72) and Forgetfulness & Mercy tend to replace Punishment
“All instincts that do not discharge themselves outwardly turns into ourselves, and will turns against life (resentment, illness)turn inward – this is what I call the internalization of man: thus it was that man first developed what was later called his ‘soul’.” (84)
“Hostility, cruelty, joy in persecuting, in attacking, in change, in destruction –all this turned against thepossessors of such instincts: that is the origin of the ‘bad conscience.’” (85)
“The bad conscience is an illness” (86) change, in destruction –all this turned against thepossessors of such instincts: (developed out of guilt – fear of ancestors –turned into Gods...Fear is turned into LoveThe Christian God expresses the maximun guilt ever developed)
Subjectivity constitutes a territory of power. The Genealogy of morals is the genealogy of our modern subjectivity. Nietzsche’s approach is unique. He presents in a unique way the processes by which we became not only a territory of power, but still more: we are the work of power, power makes us souls.
Nietzsche shows us that each one is not only an alienated being, but that inside each individual there is a whole universe of power, made of power, in struggle with power. In sum, he reveals before us an entire new dimension of power: our subjectivity, our soul.
v being, but that Power operates from the inside, our guilt functions as a fishhook by which I am increasingly tied to power. This would show how revolutions failed up to the present: because people united in herds.vThe struggle is fundamentally internal. … and is it also unending?
Human subjectivity is a product of power in itself. The challenge of gaining our will for ourselves to become sovereign of ourselves is still and will be open.