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Fisheries. What is included Generalized history Declines in salmon populations Indian Fishing Rights Public Policy Battles related to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon Where are we headed?. Diverse Species & Locations.

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Fisheries l.jpg

Fisheries

What is included

Generalized history

Declines in salmon populations

Indian Fishing Rights

Public Policy Battles related to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon

Where are we headed?


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Diverse Species & Locations

Salmon: Chinook, sockeye, silver, steelhead, other - Aquaculture

Groundfish

Clams - Razor; butter/steamer

Oysters

Mussels

Shrimp

Dungeness Crab

Albacore Tuna

Herring and Smelt

Scallops


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Generalized Early History

Early packing in salt

Steam canning (1860’s) - explosion of salmon trapping

Overharvesting in early days

Logging impacts on habitat

Lack of harvest regulation

Initiative 77

International Joint Commission


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Fishing at Celilo Falls, Columbia River (n.d.)

Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection


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Scow Fish Wheel Columbia River (n.d.)

Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection


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Fishermen Horse Seining, Sand Island, Columbia River (n.d.)

Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection


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Brailing Salmon From a Fish Trap, Possibly Puget Sound (n.d.)

Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection


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Scow Load of Salmon On Way to Cannery, Puget Sound (n.d.) (n.d.)

Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection


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Canned Salmon Being Unloaded (1913) (n.d.)

Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection


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Purse Seine Fishing Boat, Puget Sound (n.d.) (n.d.)

Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection


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Issaquah Salmon Hatchery (1935) (n.d.)

Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection


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Declines in Salmon Populations (n.d.)

Research started in the 1920’s leads by the 1960’s to knowledge of key factors:

Dam construction

High Seas Fishery

Habitat damage

Lack of catch regulation near to spawning regions

Early response: 200 mile fishery economic zone

Recent “salmon wars” U.S. & B.C. fishers


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Indian Fishing Rights: (n.d.)First Puget Sound, but now everywhere

Treaties from the 1850’s

The Boldt Decision:

50/50 split of harvests among native & non-native fishers

Reactions from Washington State, white Fishers - both recreational and commercial

Subsequent rulings: principles of habitat restoration & no further degredation


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Dams and Declining Columbia River Harvests (n.d.)

Initial concept - fish ladders

Impact of reservoirs on movement downstream of juvenile fish: warm water, dam turbines, use of barges, spring “freshet”

Listing of stocks as endangered or threatened

Interior Columbia River Basin Ecosystem Management Project

??Breaching of Lower Snake River Dams??


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The General Strategy for Columbia-Snake River Salmon Stocks: 4-H

  • Avoid extinction

  • Achieve recovery

    Via the 4 H’s:

    Habitat, Hydro, Hatchery, Harvest

    Jan. 25 2006: Jim Connaughton, Chairman of White House CEQ proposed reduced hatchery and harvest activity at a major conference in Portland OR


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Context: How to Cope with Listing of Salmon Species on the Columbia-Snake River System

  • Biological Opinions required from USFWS under Endangered Species Act

  • Development of the “Federal Caucus”- ? A legally mandated but possible fractured marriage?

  • Litigants, and the 2004 Opinion of FWS

  • 2004 Biop Remand; 2008 Biop Opinion; 2010 Supplemental Salmon BiOp

  • Current posturing & legal action: Judge Redden


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Logo of this group of Federal Agencies Columbia-Snake River System


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  • Agencies In this Consortium: Columbia-Snake River System

    • Federal Caucus Agencies

    • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - Endangered Species Act (ESA) jurisdiction over anadromous fish; also has a role regulating fisheries.

    • US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) - ESA jurisdiction over plants, wildlife, and resident fish; also operates and administers hatchery programs and national wildlife refuges.

    • Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) - markets electricity from federal dams; also has a key role funding fish and wildlife mitigation.

    • US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) - operates federal dams and locks for multiple uses.

    • US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) - operates federal dams for multiple uses.

    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - implements and enforces the Clean Water Act.

    • US Forest Service (USFS) - manages the national forest system.

    • Bureau of Land Management (BLM) - manages 16,233,739 acres of public lands in Oregon and 370,110 acres in Washington for wildlife, recreation, timber harvest, livestock grazing, mineral extraction and other public uses.



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From the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion Columbia-Snake River System


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From the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion Columbia-Snake River System


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From the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion Columbia-Snake River System


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From the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion Columbia-Snake River System


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  • From Executive Columbia-Snake River System

  • Summary of 2008

  • Biological Opinion

  • Of NOAA Fisheries,

  • Adopted by the

  • Sovereign parties in

  • Expected to be

  • In place for at least

  • 10 years.


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  • February – Judge Redden invites voluntary remand Columbia-Snake River System

  • Action agencies address climate change, toxics, invasive

  • species, hatchery fish

  • June – Judge Redden establishes timeline & framework

  • for evaluating the Supplemental BiOp

  • The 2008 BiOp was challenged by the State of Oregon

  • and a group of fishing and conservation groups.


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From December 2009 Press Release Columbia-Snake River System


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Listing of Puget Sound Salmon Species as Endangered or Threatened

First case where urban areas, counties, and state lands are key to restoration

Requires coordination with USFS

Currently establishments of measurement systems, planning frameworks, strategies for restoration

No system in place yet to really address this latest development


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In 2011: the players Threatened

Native American nations

Environmental organizations

Federal land management agencies

Federal power producing agencies (COE; BR)

Federal agencies with regulatory power (NWP&CC, NMFS)

Fisheries Industry

Recreational Sport Fishers

State & Local Governments


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Where is all this headed? Threatened

Who knows!

Problems extend well beyond salmon

(oysters, crabs, bottomfish)

The issue extends to Northwest ecosystems - both timber & rangeland

Illustration: 1/30/2000 story on bears in Rivers Inlet B.C.

Frameworks for solution? NEPA? Endangered Species Act? Congress? International organizations?