Finland s approach to licensing of geological repository
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Finland’s Approach to Licensing of Geological Repository. Tero Varjoranta Director, Nuclear Waste and Material Regulation STUK. Status after 30 years´ work. Political commitment since 1983 Clear roles and responsibilities Up-to-date regulatory framework

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Finland s approach to licensing of geological repository l.jpg

Finland’s Approach to Licensing of Geological Repository

Tero Varjoranta

Director, Nuclear Waste and Material Regulation

STUK


Slide2 l.jpg

Status after 30 years´ work

  • Political commitment since 1983

  • Clear roles and responsibilities

  • Up-to-date regulatory framework

  • Site selected with public acceptance 2001, 1st phase under construction

  • Site confirmation ongoing

  • Encapsulation facility and Engineered Barrier System under design, analysis and development,

  • Several safety assessments done

Tero Varjoranta


Keys to success in finland l.jpg
Keys to Success in Finland

  • Long term political commitment to resolve the issue

  • Clear liabilities

  • Well defined regulatory framework

  • Sustainable licensing principles

  • Over 30 years step-by-step regulatory process and implementation

  • Clear and well functioning funding scheme

  • Discipline

Tero Varjoranta


Most important clear political commitment to resolve the issue l.jpg
Most important: Clear political commitment to resolve the issue

  • Government’s strategic Decision in Principles 1983, -91, -95

  • Only safe can be built, safety can not be compromised by other requirements or demands

  • Three step licensing

    • Decision-in-Principle: Public and political acceptance, local veto-right

    • Construction license and Operating license: Safety technical issues

Tero Varjoranta


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Sustainable licensing principles when developing regulations (1)

  • “We must take care of our waste”

  • We must not leave nuclear waste as a burden to future generations

    • No future detriments exceeding currently acceptable levels

  • Use of today’s proven and robust technology and defence-in-depth principles

  • Being transparent, open and competent

    • International cooperation, but able to manage our nuclear waste without foreign support

  • Passively safe repository and no reliance on long-term surveillance

  • Retrievable, but safe and protective

  • No unjustified delays in the implementation process

Tero Varjoranta


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Sustainable licensing principles when developing regulations (2)

  • Robust passively safe repository system: natural and engineered barriers

  • Radiation protection criteria specified separately for different time periods (Operational period, reasonably predictable future, era of extreme climate changes, farthest future)

  • Long time frame cycles (~100 000y) manageable in old and stable Finnish bedrock

    • Olkiluoto bedrock, where repository 1st phase is under construction, has experienced 19000 of these time cycles, including many glacial cycles (in Finland scientific traces seen from 7 glaciations)

    • mechanically stable

    • chemically stable

    • mosaic-type structure

Tero Varjoranta


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What happens next in licensing? (2)

  • 2000/2001 Decision in Principle: the Finnish Society accepted the Olkiluoto Repository

  • 2009 November: EU-27 Peer Review to STUK

  • 2012 Construction License submittal

    • Authorization to construct deposition tunnels, deposition holes and other underground facilities

    • Authorization to construct encapsulation plant& EBS components

    • No nuclear waste to be introduced into repository

    • Pre-license application (“maturity test”) by the end of 2009

  • 2020 Operating License submittal

    • Introduction of nuclear waste into encapsulation and repository

    • Fixed period with full safety review at 15 y intervals (or as specified in license)

Tero Varjoranta