Fair Information Practice Principles and Privacy Laws. Week 3 - September 12, 14. More homework 1 review. Web cams Privacy in the news Issues privacy groups are working on Any questions about plagiarism?. Using Library Resources. Research and Communication Skills.
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Fair Information Practice Principles and Privacy Laws Week 3 - September 12, 14
More homework 1 review • Web cams • Privacy in the news • Issues privacy groups are working on • Any questions about plagiarism?
Research and Communication Skills CMU Libraries (http://www.library.cmu.edu) • Engineering and Science (a.k.a. E&S) • Location: Wean Hall, 4th floor • Subjects: Computer Science, Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, Science, Technology • Hunt (CMU’s main library) • Location: Its own building (possibly 2nd ugliest on campus behind Wean), between Tepper and Baker • Subjects: Arts, Business, Humanities, Social Sciences • Software Engineering Institute (a.k.a. SEI) • Location: SEI Building (4500 Fifth Avenue), 3rd floor • Subjects: Security, Software, Technology
Research and Communication Skills START HERE: Cameo • Cameo is CMU’s online library catalog • http://cameo.library.cmu.edu/ • Catalogs everything CMU has: books, journals, periodicals, multimedia, etc. • Search by key words, author, title, periodical title, etc.
CAMEO: Search Result for “Cranor” Number of copies and status Library
CAMEO: Search Result for “Solove” Due date
Research and Communication Skills If it’s not in Cameo, but you need it today: Local Libraries • Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh • Two closest locations • Oakland: Practically on campus (4400 Forbes Ave.) • Squirrel Hill: Forbes & Murray (5801 Forbes Ave.) • http://www.carnegielibrary.org/index.html • University of Pittsburgh Libraries • 16 libraries! Information science, Engineering, Law, Business, etc. • http://pittcat.pitt.edu/
Research and Communication Skills If it’s not in Cameo, and you can wait: ILLiad and E-ZBorrow • ILLiad and E-ZBorrow are catalogs of resources available for Interlibrary Loan from other libraries nationwide (ILLiad) and in Pennsylvania (E-ZBorrow) • Order items online (almost always free) • Wait for delivery – average 10 business days • Find links to ILLiad and E-ZBorrow online catalogs at http://www.library.cmu.edu/Services/ILL/
Research and Communication Skills Other Useful Databases • Links to many more databases, journal collections • Must be accessed on campus or through VPN • http://www.library.cmu.edu/Search/AZ.html • Lexis-Nexis • Massive catalog of legal sources – law journals, case law, news stories, etc. • IEEE and ACM journal databases • IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library • INSPEC database • Huge database of scientific and technical papers • JSTOR • Arts & Sciences, Business, Mathematics, Statistics
Research and Communication Skills And of course… • Reference librarians are available at all CMU libraries, and love to help people find what they need – just ask!
OECD fair information principles http://www.datenschutz-berlin.de/gesetze/internat/ben.htm • Collection limitation • Data quality • Purpose specification • Use limitation • Security safeguards • Openness • Individual participation • Accountability
US FTC simplified principles • Notice and disclosure • Choice and consent • Data security • Data quality and access • Recourse and remedies US Federal Trade Commission, Privacy Online: A Report to Congress (June 1998), http://www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy3/
Privacy laws around the world • Privacy laws and regulations vary widely throughout the world • US has mostly sector-specific laws, with relatively minimal protections - often referred to as “patchwork quilt” • Federal Trade Commission has jurisdiction over fraud and deceptive practices • Federal Communications Commission regulates telecommunications • European Data Protection Directive requires all European Union countries to adopt similar comprehensive privacy laws that recognize privacy as fundamental human right • Privacy commissions in each country (some countries have national and state commissions) • Many European companies non-compliant with privacy laws (2002 study found majority of UK web sites non-compliant)
US law basics • Constitutional law governs the rights of individuals with respect to the government • Tort law governs disputes between private individuals or other private entities • Congress and state legislatures adopt statutes • Federal agencies can adopt regulations which are equivalent to statutes, as long as they don’t conflict with statute
US Constitution • No explicit privacy right, but a zone of privacy recognized in its penumbras, including • 1st amendment (right of association) • 3rd amendment (prohibits quartering of soldiers in homes) • 4th amendment (prohibits unreasonable search and seizure) • 5th amendment (no self-incrimination) • 9th amendment (all other rights retained by the people) • Penumbra: “fringe at the edge of a deep shadow created by an object standing in the light” (Smith 2000, p. 258, citing Justice William O. Douglas in Griswold v. Connecticut)
Federal statutes and state laws • Federal statutes • Tend to be narrowly focused • State law • State constitutions may recognize explicit right to privacy (Georgia, Hawaii) • State statutes and common (tort) law • Local laws and regulations (for example: ordinances on soliciting anonymously)
Four aspects of privacy tort • You can sue for damages for the following torts (Smith 2000, p. 232-233) • Disclosure of truly intimate facts • May be truthful • Disclosure must be widespread, and offensive or objectionable to a person of ordinary sensibilities • Must not be newsworthy or legitimate public interest • False light • Personal information or picture published out of context • Misappropriation (or right of publicity) • Commercial use of name or face without permission • Intrusion into a person’s solitude
How does the law regulate privacy? • Law may require waiving privacy interests • Law may enforce privacy interests • Typically, the law identifies relevant privacy interests to protect, identifies relevant interests supporting disclosure, and tries to balance both sets of issues in a single resolution
Difficult legal problems • Can an individual “own” (and therefore sell) his or her own privacy rights? • Should the default assumption be “protect the privacy interest” or “compel waiver of the privacy interest”? • When should the law defer to informal or social norms, or to technological barriers or solutions?
Some US privacy laws • Bank Secrecy Act, 1970 • Fair Credit Reporting Act, 1971 • Privacy Act, 1974 • Right to Financial Privacy Act, 1978 • Cable TV Privacy Act, 1984 • Video Privacy Protection Act, 1988 • Family Educational Right to Privacy Act, 1993 • Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 1994 • Freedom of Information Act, 1966, 1991, 1996
Safe harbor • Membership • US companies self-certify adherence to requirements • Dept. of Commerce maintains signatory list http://www.export.gov/safeharbor/ • Signatories must provide • notice of data collected, purposes, and recipients • choice of opt-out of 3rd-party transfers, opt-in for sensitive data • access rights to delete or edit inaccurate information • security for storage of collected data • enforcement mechanisms for individual complaints • Approved July 26, 2000 by EU • reserves right to renegotiate if remedies for EU citizens prove to be inadequate
Data protectionagencies • Australia: http://www.privacy.gov.au/ • Canada: http://www.privcom.gc.ca/ • France: http://www.cnil.fr/ • Germany: http://www.bfd.bund.de/ • Hong Kong: http://www.pco.org.hk/ • Italy: http://www.privacy.it/ • Spain: http://www.ag-protecciondatos.es/ • Switzerland: http://www.edsb.ch/ • UK: http://www.dataprotection.gov.uk/ … And many more
Research and Communication Skills Writing a literature review • What is a literature review? • A critical summary of what has been published on a topic • What is already known about the topic • Strengths and weaknesses of previous studies • Often part of the introduction or a section of a research paper, proposal, or thesis • A literature review should • be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question you are developing • synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known • identify areas of controversy in the literature • formulate questions that need further research Dena Taylor and Margaret Procter. 2004. The literature review: A few tips on conducting it. http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/litrev.html
Research and Communication Skills Literature review do’s and don’ts • Don’t create a list of article summaries or quotes • Do point out what is most relevant about each article to your paper • Do compare and contrast the articles you review • Do highlight controversies raised or questions left unanswered by the articles you review • Do take a look at some examples of literature reviews or related work sections before you try to create one yourself • For an example, of a literature review in a CS conference paper see section 2 of http://cs1.cs.nyu.edu/~waldman/publius/paper.html
Homework 2 • http://lorrie.cranor.org/courses/fa05/hw2.html • Privacy laws • Technologies that raise privacy concerns
Homework 3 • http://lorrie.cranor.org/courses/fa05/hw3.html
Announcements • Don’t forget that project brainstorming is due by Monday