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Basic Electronics for Nuclear and Particle Physics. Oscilloscope Standards Basic Modular Units Logic What I’m NOT going to talk about: How to make individual electronic modules, component circuitry, data acquisition. Basic (Analog) Oscilloscope. Deflection voltage electrodes

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BasicElectronics for Nuclear

and Particle Physics



Basic Modular Units


What I’m NOT going to talk about:

How to make individual electronic modules, component circuitry, data acquisition

Basic (Analog) Oscilloscope

Deflection voltage electrodes

Electron gun

Electron beam

Focusing coil

Phosphor-coated inner side of the screen.

digital oscilloscope
Digital Oscilloscope
  • The vertical input, instead of driving the vertical amplifier, is digitized by an analog to digital converter and sent to an LCD flat panel (or other) display
  • Memory, computer interface
  • Brighter and bigger display, with color
  • Peak detection and other software
  • BNC
    • For coaxial cable Whatsit?
    • 50 and 75 ohm versions
  • LEMO
    • miniature push-pull coaxial, with a 50 ohm impedance (to replace BNC)
  • HV - should be on red cable
  • Ribbon
  • Cable - careful of impedance!
standardized electronics
Standardized Electronics
  • NIM, CAMAC, VME, Fastbus, PCI….
  • encompass a wide range of mechanical and electrical definitions - provides cost and convenience advantages
  • flexibility and interchangeability
    • Easily configurable
    • Update with a few modules
  • Example: CAMAC modules are exactly half the width of the minimum NIM module width. Power plug adapters are available from several manufacturers to permit NIM modules to slide into a CAMAC crate and derive their power from the CAMAC power supply.
nim standard see for instance http www esd fnal gov esd catalog intro intronim htm
NIM Standard (see, for instance)
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods - 1964 (DOE/ER-0457)
  • Common “backplane” power distribution, detachable supply delivering +6 V, -6 V, +12 V, -12 V, +24 V, and -24 V
  • No computer interface
  • height of 8.75” (1.35” single, 2.70” double width)

Plug in standardized modules!

camac standard computer automated measurement and control
CAMAC Standard (Computer Automated Measurement And Control)
  • Provides a scheme to allow a wide range of modular instruments to be interfaced to a standardized backplane called a DATAWAY, which interfaces with a computer
  • Primary application is data acquisition, may also be used for remotely programmable trigger and logic applications
  • Number of stations, module size, voltages, etc. defined in standard
  • Individual crates are controlled by slave or intelligent controllers.
vme versamodular eurocard
VME, VersaModular Eurocard
  • 1981, Motorola
  • High data rate, high performance I/O
    • CAMAC 24 bit, 1-5 MHz, 25 station, TTL level, any computer or operating system
    • VME 32/64 bit, 40-160 MHz, 20 or 13 slots, TTL level, can use Motorola but not Intel CPU (works also with VXI)
  • VME hardware typically less expensive than CAMAC, but software more
  • VME. CAMAC compatible and can be mixed to a degree
  • NIM

Why do these look so different?

  • Counter / Timer
  • NIM
  • ECL
analog to digital converter adc
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)
  • Converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers, typically input analog voltage
  • Also
    • MCA, multi-channel analyzer, for pulse height analysis
    • DAC, digital to analog converter
    • TDC, time to digital converter
      • Where might you use this?….
  • “A device that converts a property of an input signal, such as frequency or phase, into an amplitude variation, depending on how the signal differs from a standard or reference signal.” What does this mean…?
fan in fan out
Fan In / Fan Out

Logic Fan In / Fan Out

gate delay generator
Gate / Delay Generator
  • Provides precise delays for triggering, syncing, delaying and gating events
  • Gating allows regions of interest to be processed and stored while ignoring the bulk of unwanted data
  • Can also delay by….?……
logic levels
Logic “Levels”
  • Logic levels are defined by current ranges.
  • NIM standard also requires 50 ohm input/out impedances, correspond to voltages of 0 V and -0.8 V for logic 0 and 1, respectively
  • ECL, Emitter-Coupled Logic”
    • "0" = -1.75 V = LOW = False
    • "1" = -0.9 V = HIGH = True
    • Advantage: transistors change states at very high speed.
    • Disadvantage: transistors continuously draw current, so circuits require a lot of power and generate a lot of heat.
  • TTL, Transistor–Transistor Logic
    • 1962, Texas instruments
    • Low cost - computers, consumer electronics, synthesizers
  • [Others]
  • Why am I talking about transistors?….
  • Why is it called a “level”…
  • What would it look like on an oscilloscope?
lots more
Lots more…
  • Variations on ALL of the above
  • Waveform digitizers, qVts, pulse height analyzers, coincidence units, mean timers,……..
  • But, you’ve got the basics!
  • READ Tektronix XYZ's of Analog and Digital Oscilloscopes Basic Concepts - can find on web and download!
  • Web Search and find out about all the modules and standards presented today - get familiar