Disorders of hearing
Download
1 / 19

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 446 Views
  • Updated On :

Disorders of Hearing. Pathology of the Ear. Structures of the Auditory Pathway. Outer Ear Middle Ear Pinna Tympanic Membrane External Canal Ossicles (Malleus, Incus, Stapes) Eustachian Tube Inner Ear Central Auditory Pathway Cochlea 8th Nerve Cochlear Nuclei

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - PamelaLan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Disorders of hearing l.jpg

Disorders of Hearing

Pathology of the Ear


Slide3 l.jpg

Structures of the Auditory Pathway

Outer EarMiddle Ear

Pinna Tympanic Membrane

External Canal Ossicles (Malleus, Incus, Stapes)

Eustachian Tube

Inner EarCentral Auditory Pathway

Cochlea 8th Nerve

Cochlear Nuclei

Superior Olivary Complex

Lateral Lemnisci

Inferior Colliculi

Medial Geniculate Body

Auditory Cortices


Conductive hearing loss l.jpg
Conductive Hearing Loss

  • Abnormality or disease of the outer and/or middle ear.

  • AC scores poorer than BC -- ABG > 10 dB

  • Often abnormal tympanograms

  • Often absent or elevated acoustic reflexes

  • Once speech is loud enough to be heard, word recognition is typically good.

  • Generallycan be treated medication and/or surgery.


Unilateral otitis media l.jpg
Unilateral Otitis Media

  • Low frequency conductive hearing loss

  • Tympanograms may be flat or shallow with a negative pressure peak

  • Otoscopy abnormal

  • May or may not be pain


Sensory or sensorineural hearing loss l.jpg
Sensory or Sensorineural Hearing Loss

  • Hearing loss resulting from abnormality and/or pathology affecting the cochlea or auditory nerve.

  • AC scores equal to BC -- ABG < 10 dB

  • Often normal tympanograms

  • Often even though speech is loud enough to be detected, word recognition can be impaired.

  • Often not responsive to medical intervention.

  • Hearing aids can help alleviate communication difficulties.


Slide7 l.jpg


Otitis media l.jpg
Otitis Media sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

  • Negative pressure in middle ear space

    • often secondary to Eustachian tube dysfunction

    • can cause retraction of TM

  • Fluid can accumulate behind TM

    • May or may not be infected

    • can become very thick and adhesive

  • Untreated

    • can resolve

    • can perforate TM and recur

    • can have serious complications (e.g. meningitis, permanent hearing loss)


Unilateral otitis media9 l.jpg
Unilateral Otitis Media sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

  • Low frequency conductive hearing loss

  • Tympanograms may be flat or shallow with a negative pressure peak

  • Otoscopy abnormal

  • May or may not be pain


Otosclerosis l.jpg
Otosclerosis sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

  • Progressive conductive hearing loss typically unilateral.

  • Carhart’s notch

  • Tympanogram is normal or shallow.

  • Absent or abnormally elevated acoustic reflexes


Slide11 l.jpg

SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS = sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

LESS SENSITIVE TO SOUND

SPEECH IS UNCLEAR


Slide12 l.jpg

Disorders of the Inner Ear sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

Meniere’s Disease

Endolymphatic Hydrops

Tinnitus

Vertigo

Fluctuating Hearing Loss

Ototoxicity

Induced by aminoglycosides

Induced by loop diuretics

Induced by cancer treatment


Meniere s disease l.jpg
Meniere’s Disease sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

  • Fluctuating (but often progressive), unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

  • Tinnitus

  • Episodic vertigo


Slide14 l.jpg

Disorders of the Inner Ear sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

Noise Exposure

Recreational Noise

Occupational Noise

Environmental Noise

Temporal Bone Fractures

Meningitis

Presbycusis


Noise induced hearing loss l.jpg
Noise Induced Hearing Loss sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

  • Bilateral, sensorineural loss.

  • Noise notch at 4000 Hz

  • Tympanogram and acoustic reflexes WNL


Presbycusis l.jpg
Presbycusis sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

  • Age related hearing loss

  • Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss often worse in the high frequencies and tends to progress.

  • Tympanograms normal

  • Word recognition scores often depressed.


Slide17 l.jpg

  • Left: Hearing WNL. sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

  • Right: Moderate sloping to severe mixed loss.


Slide18 l.jpg

  • Left: sensorineural hearing loss above 4000 Hz bilaterally.

    • PTA: 45 dB HL

    • SRT: 40 dB HL

    • Word Recognition: 98% at 80 dB HL

  • Right:

    • PTA: 58 dB HL

    • SRT: 50 dB HL

    • Word Recognition: 68% at 90 dB HL


Slide19 l.jpg


ad