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Designing self-management programs to increase appropriate social and academic work skills. Presented by Anne W. Todd March 2004 email@example.com. Self-Management. Critical skills for succeeding in school & work environments Social Skills Communication Skills Literacy Skills
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Designing self-management programs to increase appropriate social and academic work skills Presented by Anne W. Todd March 2004 firstname.lastname@example.org
Self-Management • Critical skills for succeeding in school & work environments • Social Skills • Communication Skills • Literacy Skills • Organizational Skills • Job Specific Skills
Self-Management Defined (3 criteria) 1. Two behaviors • self-management behavior • target behavior 2. Both behaviors are performed by the same person 3. Self-management behavior changes the target behavior
Function-based self-management • Design support based on functional behavior assessment information • Specifically, teach self-management skills and routines • Define, teach, provide feedback by acknowledging/ correcting, monitoring, using the skill, use the data to redefine and recycle the process • Make data-based decisions • Start with the questions: what do you want to know? • Is there progress? • Does program need to be revised? • Who needs to know? • When will we re-group? • Create data collection forms for efficiency in recording and summarizing
Why self-management skills are "pivotal" • Self-management is the foundation of prosocial behavior • Our society is incapable of maintaining positive behavior via external reinforcers alone • Self-management skills facilitate generalization • Self-management skills facilitate development of new, prosocial skills
When to use self-management procedures • to increase motivation • to increase predictability and consistency • to facilitate memory or exaggerate relevant cues (sequences) • to decrease physiological arousal • to decrease dependence on staff/family (increase independence) • to improve generalization and maintenance
Self-management Strategies • self-monitoring • self-delivered instructions & self-talk • self-relaxation routines • self manipulations of preceding events • self-delivered rewards • (self-delivered corrections)
Signaling the use of self-management strategies • Signals for self-management are critical • Use natural signals as much as possible • Infuse ‘temporary’ signals if the natural signal isn’t often enough • Whatever you add, be prepared to fade out as the student succeeds • Auditory vs. visual • Tallies, checks, pluses, rating scales
Recording self-management behavior • What is the purpose of recording? • To self-monitor • Instructional prompts • Visual monitoring of progress • To increase predictability and accountability • To determine if behavior is more socially acceptable? • To determine if work work/routine is completed? • To determine if work is accurate? • Be creative & efficient • Make is simple, doable, easy to use • Use the data • Examples
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 4th decide on topic 5th start outline 6th 7th 8th finish outline 9th 10th write introduction 11th day off! 12th 13th write Paragraph 1 14th 15th 16th writeparagraph 2 17th 18th write paragraph 3 19th 20th 21st write conclusion 22nd edit first draft 23rd complete first draft 24th references 25th finish references 26th day off! 27th 28th edit final copy 29th make cover page 31st 30th Turn in 5th grade research project calendar
1st 2nd 3rd 4th Me T agree? Me T agree? Me T agree? Me T agree? Had materials Kept my cool Total +’s I am a self-manager
+ + 0 + + + +
Tuesday Jan. 23, 2001 1/23/01 8 9 music Science PE
Meet Felix A snapshot: 7th grader Traumatic brain injury (hit by car in 2nd grade) Lives with parents & siblings Articulate, reads at 2-3 grade level Loves video games & soccer Aggressive toward property & others when frustrated
Felix Wait for attention Delayed attention New curr. Indep work time No attention Physically difficult tasks Intellectually difficult tasks Whining, grabbing arm, interrupting, hand in face Teacher attention Raise hand Ask for help
Instruction for Felix to learn self-management routine • Nine 25 minute instructional session • Teach to have materials • Teach to keep cool • Teach to self-monitor for both skills • Teach routine to self-monitor & check for accuracy & go to next period • Teach to ‘take time’ routine
Self-management Card 1. Every period with 4 pluses= 1 raffle ticket 2. Every day with 24 pluses = soda
Felix’s progress for 81 school days • Had materials for classes 78 of 81 school days or 96% of time • Kept cool 75% of days (61 days of 81 total) • Only 2 of 81 days had difficulty for 3 or more of 6 periods • 14 days, only one tough period of the 6 • Accuracy of self-assessment was 100% for 91% of the 81 days • Accuracy of self-assessment never fell below 80% • The last 46 days of data collection, accuracy of self-assessment was 100% consistently!
Meet Kyle A snapshot: 4th grader at the time Has diagnosed learning disabilities Gets extra support in reading & math In regular classroom 90% of time Loves to draw & is good at it Taunts and teases peers
Kyle Do work & get along Teacher praise Distracts peers, doesn’t pay attention, incomplete work, plays with materials Group activities & indep. work Lack of attn at home Peer and teacher attention Self-manage: on-task, task completion, Keep hands, feet & objects to self
Instruction for Kyleto learn self-management routine • Three 15 minute instructional sessions to master use of self-management system • Signal for self-monitoring was the word ‘check’ heard through a tape recorder • 3,4 and 5 minute intervals • Discrimination for on-task and not on-task • Practice recording during simulations
Kyle % of time on task Self- Self- Base- Base- Self- Mgmt 1 Mgmt 2 line 1 line 2 Mgmt 3 100 ! ! 90 ! 80 ! ! ! ! 70 ! 60 ! ! ! ! 50 Class period A ! 40 ! ! 30 ! 20 Percentage of intervals of problem behavior ! ! 10 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 0 100 90 80 ! ! 70 60 ! Class period B ! ! 50 40 ! 30 20 ! ! ! ! 10 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 0 Session: 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 56 60 63 68 73 Date: 1/14 2/3 2/11 2/14 2/19 2/25 2/27 3/6 3/13 3/18 4/2 4/8 4/17 4/24 4/30 5/20 10 Minute Class Session Probes
Work Completion for Kyle Base- Self- Self- Base- Self- line 2 mgmt1 mgmt 3 line 1 mgmt 2 24 ! 22 ! ! 20 ! ! 18 ! ! 16 ! ! 14 ! ! 12 ! Cumulative work completion ! 10 ! ! 8 ! ! 6 ! ! 4 ! ! ! ! 2 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 0 Session: 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 56 62 68 73 Date: 1/14 2/3 2/11 2/14 2/19 2/25 2/27 3/6 3/13 3/18 4/2 4/8 4/24 4/30 5/20
Meet Hannah A snapshot: 4th grader Has Down’s Syndrome Enjoys music, especially the Backstreet Boys Loves to hang out with peers Disruptive in class Inappropriate on the play ground
Instruction for Hannah • Thirteen 30 minute instructional sessions to master use of self-management system • instruction to use tape recorder • signal for self-monitoring when the word ‘check’ heard through a tape recorder • 3,4 and 5 minute intervals • 7, 8, 9 minute intervals • Instruction for on-task and not on-task discrimination • Instruction for zero and plus discrimination • Instruction to raise hand when seeing the hand cue • Instruction & practice recording during simulations
Self-management Behaviors • Preparing for class & work • Time management • Define and teach the routines! • arrive on time • with necessary materials • complete tasks in timely manner • Appearance & attitude • enter in a pleasant manner, be respectful • be prepared to work • ask for help when needed
Self-management Behaviors • Participating in class & work • follow rules and guidelines • stay on-task/ time management • do work as assigned • ask for help when needed, in an endearing way • be respectful and cooperative
Self-management Behaviors • Wrapping up and leaving class & work • be respectful and cooperative • organize/ clean up materials and workspace • take necessary materials/ homework • Time management • wrap up work station & tasks on time • leave on time
References for Felix, Kyle, and Hannah Studies • Brooks, A., Todd, A. W., Tofflemoyer, S., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Use of a Functional Assessment and a Self-Management System to Increase Academic Engagement and Work Completion.Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, Vol 5. (3). pp. 144-152. Pro-Ed. • Todd, A.W., Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effects of Self-monitoring and Self-recruited Praise on Problem Behavior, Academic Engagement and Work Completion in a Typical Classroom. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 1(2), 66-76. Pro-Ed. • Todd, A., Horner, R., Vanater, S., & Schneider, C. (1997). Working Together to Make Change: An Example of Positive Behavioral Support for a Student with Traumatic Brain Injury.Education and Treatment of Children. Vol 20 (4), 425-440. Pressley Ridge Schools.