Basics to Beef Cow Nutrition. Basics to Small Farm Beef Cow Nutrition. Adam Hady Agriculture Agent Richland County UWEX. Key Nutrients . Six Basic Nutrients Water Protein Carbohydrates Fats Minerals Vitamins. Nutrient Requirements .
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Basics to Beef Cow Nutrition Basics to Small Farm Beef Cow Nutrition Adam Hady Agriculture Agent Richland County UWEX
Key Nutrients • Six Basic Nutrients • Water • Protein • Carbohydrates • Fats • Minerals • Vitamins
Nutrient Requirements The amount of nutrient that an animal needs to perform a specific purpose. • Determined by: weight, sex, age, growth rate, stage of production.
Nutrient Composition Nutrient composition is the amount of nutrients found in the feed source. Nutrient Composition can be obtained from book values, which are just an averages for a feed, or you can have a feed analysis done.
Nutrient Composition Common information on the composition table for a feed stuff are: • Dry matter • Crude Protein • Energy • Fiber • Minerals Feed Analysis
Dry Matter The % of a feed stuff that is not water. For example: If hay is 88% dry matter then a 45 pound bale of hay would be 39.5 lbs of dry matter. Rations will come in as pounds of dry matter (DM) or As Fed
Crude Proteins Proteins are the building block for animals and are chains of amino acids Crude protein is determined by the amount of Nitrogen (N) in a feed multiplied by 6.25 N is used to determine the amount of protein, because of the N is critical part of the amino acid structure and makes up approximately 16% of the protein structure.
Crude Proteins • Crude Protein in beef cow rations come primarily from the forage in the diet. • Pasture grass and forages are an excellent source of protein • There are also many protein supplements (feed that contain over 20% crude protein)
Energy Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. In animal nutrition is determined by biological heat production Calories (cal), Kilocalorie (kcal), or Megacalorie (Mcal)
Energy Common measurements of energy in ration formulation • Gross Energy (GE) – total amount of energy in a feed source • Digestible Energy (DE) – Energy absorbed by the animal after consumption • Metabolizable Energy (ME) – Energy that is available through feed consumption • Net Energy (NE) – Similar to DE and ME • Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) – A method that calculates energy based on crude protein and fiber.
Energy Sources: • Starch, fats, cellulose and proteins • Majority of energy in beef cattle rations is the cellulose in forage.
Fiber Estimates the amount of carbohydrate found in plants. Unlike monogastrics, cattle utilize microbes in the rumen to breakdown the fiber, therefore providing energy to the animal.
Minerals: Two categories macro and micro minerals Crystalline substances that can not be synthesized in the animal. They provide the foundations for structure and function in the animal Minerals and Vitamins
Minerals and Vitamins Vitamins: • Two categories water soluble and fat soluble • Some vitamins can be synthesized in the body others can not. • They provide the foundations for structure and function in the animal
How Nutrients are Used • Maintenance • Lactation • Growth • Reproduction In order of priority for the cow
TDN and CP Source: NRC, 2000
Dry Matter Intakes Source: NRC, 2000
Nutrients by Calving Cycle Source: NRC, 2000
Adding Energy for the Elements Rations of grain may be less effective than having a sufficient supply of good quality forages such as alfalfa or grass hay available at all times, since fiber digestion produces body heat in cattle . If animals are cleaning up everything quickly after feeding and have nothing to munch on until the next meal, you may not be putting enough forage out at a time to meet their extra needs during cold weather Source: It’s Cold Outside
Does Only Hay Provide?? • I am going to feed a Late Bloom Orchard Grass Hay. • For the example Nutrients that we have been using: • TDN – 54 %DM • CP – 8.4 %DM
Do We Meet Needs Just on Orchard Grass Hay??? Source: NRC, 2000
Pasture is a Gift Source: NRC, 2000
Evaluating Your Feeding Program • The best way to evaluate your feeding program is by the animals themselves. • Use Body Condition Scoring as a guide.
Body Score Condition Scoring How this will help my feeding program: • gives an indication of reproductive perforce based on body condition • Can give you an estimate of nutrient need.
Body Condition Scoring Score of 1-9 Score of 1 – is Sick and Weak. Score of 9 - Extremely Fat Want a score of 6
When to Evaluate Body Score • Key times to look at body condition scoring: • Beginning of your breeding season • At weaning • Calving time
Sources & References • Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, National Research Council, 2000 • Livestock Feeds and Feeding, D.C. Church, 1991 • UW- Extension Beef Web Page http://www.uwex.edu/ces/animalscience/beef/index.cfm • Iowa Beef Center: http://www.iowabeefcenter.org/ • Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 400-795. http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/beef/400-795/400-795.pdf • “It’s Cold Outside! Tips for Winter Livestock Care” by , Rhonda Gildersleeve Agriculture Agent Iowa County UW Extension from the Weekend Farmer Newsletter
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