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Transdisciplinary Considerations Among Sustainability Criteria With a Focus on the Ecological Macroeconomics of Biodiversity Conservation Spheres of Sustainability Ecological Economic Social Prehistoric Proportions Ecological Economic Social Sustainability Institutions Ecological

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transdisciplinary considerations among sustainability criteria

Transdisciplinary Considerations Among Sustainability Criteria

With a Focus on the

Ecological Macroeconomics

of Biodiversity Conservation

spheres of sustainability
Spheres of Sustainability

Ecological

Economic

Social

prehistoric proportions
Prehistoric Proportions

Ecological

Economic

Social

sustainability institutions
Sustainability Institutions

Ecological

(Institutions)

Economic

Social

capacities and tradeoffs
Capacities and Tradeoffs

Ecological

Social

Economic

slide6
Economic Growth

an increase in the production and consumption of goods and services

typically expressed in terms of GDP

facilitated by increasing:

population

per capita consumption

slide7

K

Natural capital allocated to wildlife

GNP

Natural capital

allocated to

human economy

Time

Czech, B. 2000. Economic growth as the limiting factor for wildlife conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1):4-14.

slide8
Some Empirical Evidence:

Causes of Species Endangerment

as a “Who’s Who”

of the American Economy

endangerment causes
Urbanization

Agriculture

Water diversions (e.g., reservoirs)

Recreation, tourism development

Pollution

Domestic livestock, ranching

247

205

160

148

143

136

Endangerment Causes

Czech et al. 2000. Bioscience 50(7):593-601.

causes cont
Mineral, gas, oil extraction

Non-native species

Harvest

Modified fire regimes

Road construction/maintenance

Industrial development

134

115

101

83

83

81

Causes (cont.)

Czech et al. 2000. Bioscience 50(7):593-601.

slide12

Economy of Nature

Super-

Carnivores

Service

Providers

Consumers

Producers (i.e., plants)

slide13

Human Economy

Light

manufacturing

Heavy

manufacturing

Service

Sectors

Producers (i.e., agriculture, extraction)

slide14

Human-inclusive Economy of Nature

Humans

Service

Providers

Animals

Plants

slide15

With Economic Growth

Human

Economy

Service

Providers

Animals

Plants

slide16

PDF files for these articles available at The Wildlife Society website: www.wildlife.org. (Follow links to Wildlife Society Bulletin.)

esa listings and gdp
ESA Listings and GDP

$10

$9

$8

$7

$6

$5

$4

$3

R2 = 98.4

1973 1980 1990 2001

slide19

Carrying Capacity Scenarios

K

K-selection

Individuals

r-selection

Time

slide21

Economic Carrying Capacity

K

K-selection

GDP

r-selection

Time

american gnp 1929 1997
American GNP, 1929-1997

K or r-selected?

slide25

Wildlife Conservation and

Steady State Economy

K

To conserve wildlife...

GNP

...maintain steady state

economy sufficiently

below K.

Time

slide27
Technological Progress

Vernacular: invention, innovation

Technical: increasing productive efficiency resulting from invention and innovation

slide28

Natural Capital Allocation Revisited

KU

X natural capital allocable

KT

Natural capital allocated

to non-human economy

GNP

Natural capital allocated to human economy

Time

slide29

The Big Hope

KU

X natural capital remains allocable

K2

X/2 conserved

K1

Economic growth with technology level 2

GNP

Economic growth with technology level 1

Time

the great debate is there a limit
“Yes”

Physiocrats

Classical economists

Ecological economists

Ecologists

“No”

Neoclassical economists

Corporations

Politicians

The Great Debate: Is There a Limit?
why would there not be a limit
Substitutability of resources

Increasing productive efficiency

Increasing human capital

Why would there not be a limit?
slide34

Sitka Spruce,

Timbco 435 “Feller Buncher”

slide36
Carrying Capacity

Consumers

Products

Byproducts

slide37
Thermodynamics

Fixed amount of matter

Entropy

Fixed amount of energy

slide39

Economy of Nature

Biomass/100

Service

Providers

Biomass/10

Biomass

slide40

Human Economy

Light

manufacturing

Heavy

manufacturing

Service

Sectors

Producers (i.e., agriculture, extraction)

slide41
Clear to All

Without technological progress, GNP limited

GNP growth faster than technological progress = trouble

slide42
Unclear to Many

Technological progress: raising the bar or accelerating the approach?

Does technological progress occur without increased consumption?

slide43
Consider the Sources

Research and development

Corporate profit

Economies of scale

slide44

One More Look at Allocation

KU

X natural capital allocable

KT

Natural capital allocated

to non-human economy

GNP

Natural capital allocated to human economy

Time

slide45

Remember the Big Hope?

KU

X natural capital remains allocable

K2

X/2 conserved

K1

Economic growth with technology level 2

GNP

Economic growth with technology level 1

Time

slide46

The Apparent Reality

KU

X/2 natural capital allocable

K2

X/2 converted

K1

GNP

Economic growth with technology level 2

Economic growth with technology level 1

Time

slide47
Red Herring Alert!

Red Herring Alert!

Red Herring Alert!

slide48
The “Information” Economy

What is the information used for?

How does one come to

afford the information?

slide49
To say that an economy may grow perpetually on a finite land mass is to say that a stable economy may occupy a perpetually diminishing land mass!

Fallacy Buster

slide50

$

$

=

$

$

slide51
RealQuestions

What is the limit?

How do we know when we’re approaching the limit?

What do we do to prevent breaching the limit?

slide52
Recommendations

Introductions should acknowledge spherical capacities and tradeoffs.

Criteria should provide indicators of trading off.

Interpretation should include observations of tradeoffs.

Does technological progress occur without increased consumption?