Comunicación y Gerencia The Protestant Reformation The Great Religious Upheval
Causes of the Reformation • Corruption in the Catholic Church: • simony (sale of church offices), • pluralism (official holding more than one office), • absenteeism (official not participating in benefices), • sale of indulgences, • nepotism (favoring family members e.g. Medici’s), • moral decline of the papacy, • clerical ignorance
Causes of the Reformation Renaissance Humanism: de-emphasis on religion, secularism, individualism Declining prestige of the papacy Babylonian Captivity Great Schism Conciliar Movement
Causes of the Reformation • Critics of the Church: emphasize a personal relationship with God as primary • John Wyclif (1329-1384), England, Lollards • Jan Hus (1369-1415), Czech • Savonarola (1452-1498) – theocracy in Florence 1494-98 • Changing views of the common people. • Secularism • Poplular religion
Causes of the Reformation • Christian Humanism: emphasis on early church writings for answers to improve society • Desiderius Erasmus • Thomas More
Martin Luther (1483-1546) • Early Life • Born in Saxony • Wanted to be a lawyer, but had religious experience and decided to become Augustinian monk • Taught theology at the University of Wittenberg.
Justification by Faith • Even though Luther had become a monk he questioned his ability to be saved. • He read the work of the early church fathers (St. Augustine, and St. Paul) • In Paul’s epistle to the Romans (1:17) he found “The just shall live by faith.” • Luther felt that good works and sacraments were secondary to faith in Christ.
Johann Tetzel (1465?-1519) • Authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences in Germany. • Came to Wittenburg in 1517 selling indulgences to pay for St. Peter’s in Rome • “As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”
95 Theses • Nailed by Luther to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg on October, 31st 1517 • Criticized sale of indulgences. • This was inconsistent with his doctrine of justification by faith.
John Eck (1486-1543) -German Catholic theologian -Opposed the Reformation & condemned Luther's theses -Debated Luther at Leipzig in 1520; Luther denied both the authority of the pope and the infallibility of a general council, - Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1520, Eck delivered the Papal Bull.
Diet of Worms (1521) • Tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire with power to outlaw and sentence execution through stake-burning • Edict of Worms: Luther outlawed by the HRE under Emperor Charles V • Luther goes into hiding at Wartburg Castle under the protection of Frederick the Elector. Here he translates the bible into German.
Confessions of Augsburg • Presented at the Diet of Augsburg • 1530: Written by Luther’s friend Philip Melanchthon • Attempted compromise statement of religious faith to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE; rejected by Catholic princes • Became traditional statement of Lutheran beliefs: • Salvation through faith alone • Bible is the sole authority • Church consists of entire Christian community
Peace of Augsburg • After the Diet of Augsburg, Lutheran princes for the Schmalkaldic League (1531) against Catholic Hapsburg rulers (Charles V) • Civil war erupted in Germany for the next 20 years. • Charles V seeks to stop Protestantism and preserve hegemony of Catholicism
Peace of Augsburg • Habsburg-Valois Wars: five wars between 1521 and 1555 France tried to keep Germany divided (although France was Catholic) political impact of Lutheranism in Germany: division lasts until late 19th century. • In 1555, a compromise was established based on the formula cuius regio, eius religio (whose region, his religion.)
Peasants’ War (1524-1525) • (also known as Swabian Peasant uprising) • Twelve Articles,1525: peasants demanded end of manorialism (feudalism) • Inspired by Luther; Luther opposed to violence and peasant movement. • As many as 100,000 peasants killed.
Impact on Women • Lutheranism stressed marriage and the Christian home, marriage was a woman’s career. • Women should be educated – schools for girls (Philip Melancthon) • Nunnery taken away as a way for a women to advance in society.
Protestantism Spreads Other Sects
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) • Humanist, catholic priest. • Desired reform in the church • 1519, broke with the church
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) • Lead people of Zurich against the Catholic Church • Believed in the supremacy of the Bible • Colloquy of Marburg (1529): Zwingli splits with Luther over issue of Eucharist
John Calvin (1509-1564) • French Catholic priest. • High educated. • Agreed with Luther on most points (faith, Bible, sacraments.
John Calvin (1509-1564) • Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) – major work of the Protestant Reformation • Calvinism: predestination, the “elect,” • Puritan or Protestant work ethic. • Most militant and uncompromising of all Protestants • Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva
Spread of Calvinism • Far greater impact on future generations than Lutheranism • Presbyterianism in Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572); presbyters governed church • Huguenots – French Calvinists; brutally suppressed in France • Dutch Reformed – United Provinces of the Netherlands. • Puritans and Pilgrims (a separatist minority) in England; established colonies in America • Countries where Calvinism did not spread: Ireland, Spain, Italy – heavily Catholic
Radicals • Anabaptists, John of Leyden (1509-1536): voluntary association of believers with no connection to any state • Munster: became Anabaptist stronghold; tragedy at Munster—Protestant and Catholic forces captured the city and executed Anabaptist leaders • Mennonites: founded by Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists (Amish)
Reformation in England • John Wycliffe (1329-1384): Lollards • Henry VIII: 2nd of Tudor kings—considered a “New Monarch” initially strong ally of Pope: Defense of Seven Sacraments; “Defender of the Faith” • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey: failed to get Henry’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon (originally wife of older brother Arthur) • excommunication by Pope Paul III
Reformation in England • Thomas Cranmer, 42 Articles of Religion: grants Henry his divorce • Church of England (Anglican Church) • Act of Supremacy (1534): King is now the head of the English Church • Dissolution of the Monasteries – power play • Execution of Thomas More for his opposition • 1539, Statute of the Six Articles: Henry attempts to maintain certain Catholic sacraments
Successors to Henry VIII • Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) (Son of Jane Seymour) England becomes more Protestant, weak ruler. • Mary Tudor (r. 1553-1558) (Daughter of Catherine of Aragontries to reimpose Catholicism “Bloody Mary.” Married Philip II of Spain. • Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) (Daughter of Anne Boleyn– the “Virgin Queen” effectively oversaw the development of Protestantism in England
Elizabeth I • 1559, Parliament passes new Act of Supremacy and Act of Uniformity. • 1563, Thirty-Nine Articles: defined creed of Anglican Church under Elizabeth I • Puritans and Pilgrims (Separatists) sought to reform the church; Pilgrims left for Holland and then America
THE CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION aka Catholic Reformation
Move to Reform • Pope Paul III (r. 1534-1549): Most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism, appointed ethical clergy. Called Church Council. • Julius III (r. 1550-1555) worldly pope. • Papacy comes more committed to reform under Paul IV, (r. 1555-1559), Pius IV (r. 1559-1565, and Pius V (r. 1566-1572)
New Religious Orders • Ursuline order of nuns (1544): Sought to combat heresy through Christian education • Discalced Carmelite Nuns (1562) – St. Teresa of Avila (1515-1582), poverty and simple life. • Capuchins (1528) reform of Franciscans • Oratorians (1575) St. Philip Neri • Theatines (1523) improve education of clergy
New Religious Orders • Jesuits (Society of Jesus) (1540): 3 goals—reform church through education, preach • Gospel to pagan peoples, fight Protestantism • Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556): founder; organized in military fashion • Spiritual Exercises: contained ideas used to train Jesuits
Spanish and Italian Inquisitions • Spain: persecution of Mariscos (Christian Moors) & Marranos (Christian Jews) • Succeeded in bringing southern German and eastern Europe back to Catholicism • Sacred Congregation of the Holy Order, 1542, in papal states: Roman Inquisition • Index of Prohibited Books: catalogue of forbidden reading • Ended heresy in Papal States; rest of Italy not affected significantly
Council of Trent (3 sessions 1545-1563) • Established Catholic dogma four next 4 centuries • Equal validity of Scripture, Church traditions, and writings of Church fathers • Salvation by both “good works’ and faith • 7 sacraments valid; transubstantiation reaffirmed • Monasticism, celibacy of clergy, and purgatory reaffirmed • approved Index of Forbidden Books
Council of Trent • Church reforms: abuses in sale of indulgences curtailed, sale of church offices curtailed, ended nepotism • Bishops given greater control over clergy, seminaries established to train priests.
Results of Reformation • The unity of Western Christianity was shattered: Northern Europe (Scandinavia, England, much of Germany, parts of France, Switzerland, Scotland) adopted Protestantism. • Religious enthusiasm was rekindled – similar enthusiasm not seen since far back into the Middle Ages. • Abuses remedied: simony, pluralism, immoral or badly educated clergy were considerably remedied by the 17th century. • Religious wars broke out in Europe for well over a century.