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Comunicación y Gerencia. The Protestant Reformation. The Great Religious Upheval. Causes of the Reformation. Corruption in the Catholic Church: simony (sale of church offices), pluralism (official holding more than one office), absenteeism (official not participating in benefices),

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the protestant reformation

Comunicación y Gerencia

The Protestant Reformation

The Great Religious Upheval


Causes of the Reformation

  • Corruption in the Catholic Church:
    • simony (sale of church offices),
    • pluralism (official holding more than one office),
    • absenteeism (official not participating in benefices),
    • sale of indulgences,
    • nepotism (favoring family members e.g. Medici’s),
    • moral decline of the papacy,
    • clerical ignorance

Causes of the Reformation

Renaissance Humanism: de-emphasis on religion, secularism, individualism

Declining prestige of the papacy

Babylonian Captivity

Great Schism

Conciliar Movement


Causes of the Reformation

  • Critics of the Church: emphasize a personal relationship with God as primary
    • John Wyclif (1329-1384), England, Lollards
    • Jan Hus (1369-1415), Czech
    • Savonarola (1452-1498) – theocracy in Florence 1494-98
    • Changing views of the common people.
      • Secularism
      • Poplular religion

Causes of the Reformation

  • Christian Humanism: emphasis on early church writings for answers to improve society
    • Desiderius Erasmus
    • Thomas More
martin luther 1483 1546
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
  • Early Life
    • Born in Saxony
    • Wanted to be a lawyer, but had religious experience and decided to become Augustinian monk
    • Taught theology at the University of Wittenberg.
justification by faith
Justification by Faith
  • Even though Luther had become a monk he questioned his ability to be saved.
  • He read the work of the early church fathers (St. Augustine, and St. Paul)
  • In Paul’s epistle to the Romans (1:17) he found “The just shall live by faith.”
  • Luther felt that good works and sacraments were secondary to faith in Christ.
johann tetzel 1465 1519
Johann Tetzel (1465?-1519)
  • Authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences in Germany.
  • Came to Wittenburg in 1517 selling indulgences to pay for St. Peter’s in Rome
  • “As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”
95 theses
95 Theses
  • Nailed by Luther to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg on October, 31st 1517
  • Criticized sale of indulgences.
  • This was inconsistent with his doctrine of justification by faith.
john eck 1486 1543
John Eck (1486-1543)

-German Catholic theologian

-Opposed the Reformation & condemned Luther's theses

-Debated Luther at Leipzig in 1520; Luther denied both the authority of the pope and the infallibility of a general council,

- Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1520, Eck delivered the Papal Bull.

diet of worms 1521
Diet of Worms (1521)
  • Tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire with power to outlaw and sentence execution through stake-burning
  • Edict of Worms: Luther outlawed by the HRE under Emperor Charles V
  • Luther goes into hiding at Wartburg Castle under the protection of Frederick the Elector. Here he translates the bible into German.
confessions of augsburg
Confessions of Augsburg
    • Presented at the Diet of Augsburg
    • 1530: Written by Luther’s friend Philip Melanchthon
  • Attempted compromise statement of religious faith to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE; rejected by Catholic princes
  • Became traditional statement of Lutheran beliefs:
    • Salvation through faith alone
    • Bible is the sole authority
    • Church consists of entire Christian community
peace of augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
  • After the Diet of Augsburg, Lutheran princes for the Schmalkaldic League (1531) against Catholic Hapsburg rulers (Charles V)
  • Civil war erupted in Germany for the next 20 years.
  • Charles V seeks to stop Protestantism and preserve hegemony of Catholicism
peace of augsburg14
Peace of Augsburg
  • Habsburg-Valois Wars: five wars between 1521 and 1555 France tried to keep Germany divided (although France was Catholic) political impact of Lutheranism in Germany: division lasts until late 19th century.
  • In 1555, a compromise was established based on the formula cuius regio, eius religio (whose region, his religion.)
peasants war 1524 1525
Peasants’ War (1524-1525)
  • (also known as Swabian Peasant uprising)
  • Twelve Articles,1525: peasants demanded end of manorialism (feudalism)
  • Inspired by Luther; Luther opposed to violence and peasant movement.
  • As many as 100,000 peasants killed.
impact on women
Impact on Women
  • Lutheranism stressed marriage and the Christian home, marriage was a woman’s career.
  • Women should be educated – schools for girls (Philip Melancthon)
  • Nunnery taken away as a way for a women to advance in society.
ulrich zwingli 1484 1531
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
  • Humanist, catholic priest.
  • Desired reform in the church
  • 1519, broke with the church
ulrich zwingli 1484 153119
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
  • Lead people of Zurich against the Catholic Church
  • Believed in the supremacy of the Bible
  • Colloquy of Marburg (1529): Zwingli splits with Luther over issue of Eucharist
john calvin 1509 1564
John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • French Catholic priest.
  • High educated.
  • Agreed with Luther on most points (faith, Bible, sacraments.
john calvin 1509 156421
John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) – major work of the Protestant Reformation
  • Calvinism: predestination, the “elect,”
  • Puritan or Protestant work ethic.
  • Most militant and uncompromising of all Protestants
  • Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva
spread of calvinism
Spread of Calvinism
  • Far greater impact on future generations than Lutheranism
  • Presbyterianism in Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572); presbyters governed church
  • Huguenots – French Calvinists; brutally suppressed in France
  • Dutch Reformed – United Provinces of the Netherlands.
  • Puritans and Pilgrims (a separatist minority) in England; established colonies in America
  • Countries where Calvinism did not spread: Ireland, Spain, Italy – heavily Catholic
  • Anabaptists, John of Leyden (1509-1536): voluntary association of believers with no connection to any state
  • Munster: became Anabaptist stronghold; tragedy at Munster—Protestant and Catholic forces captured the city and executed Anabaptist leaders
  • Mennonites: founded by Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists (Amish)
reformation in england
Reformation in England
  • John Wycliffe (1329-1384): Lollards
  • Henry VIII: 2nd of Tudor kings—considered a “New Monarch” initially strong ally of Pope: Defense of Seven Sacraments; “Defender of the Faith”
  • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey: failed to get Henry’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon (originally wife of older brother Arthur)
  • excommunication by Pope Paul III
reformation in england25
Reformation in England
  • Thomas Cranmer, 42 Articles of Religion: grants Henry his divorce
  • Church of England (Anglican Church)
  • Act of Supremacy (1534): King is now the head of the English Church
  • Dissolution of the Monasteries – power play
  • Execution of Thomas More for his opposition
  • 1539, Statute of the Six Articles: Henry attempts to maintain certain Catholic sacraments
successors to henry viii
Successors to Henry VIII
  • Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) (Son of Jane Seymour) England becomes more Protestant, weak ruler.
  • Mary Tudor (r. 1553-1558) (Daughter of Catherine of Aragontries to reimpose Catholicism “Bloody Mary.” Married Philip II of Spain.
  • Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) (Daughter of Anne Boleyn– the “Virgin Queen” effectively oversaw the development of Protestantism in England
elizabeth i
Elizabeth I
  • 1559, Parliament passes new Act of Supremacy and Act of Uniformity.
  • 1563, Thirty-Nine Articles: defined creed of Anglican Church under Elizabeth I
  • Puritans and Pilgrims (Separatists) sought to reform the church; Pilgrims left for Holland and then America
the catholic counter reformation


aka Catholic Reformation

move to reform
Move to Reform
  • Pope Paul III (r. 1534-1549): Most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism, appointed ethical clergy. Called Church Council.
  • Julius III (r. 1550-1555) worldly pope.
  • Papacy comes more committed to reform under Paul IV, (r. 1555-1559), Pius IV (r. 1559-1565, and Pius V (r. 1566-1572)
new religious orders
New Religious Orders
  • Ursuline order of nuns (1544): Sought to combat heresy through Christian education
  • Discalced Carmelite Nuns (1562) – St. Teresa of Avila (1515-1582), poverty and simple life.
  • Capuchins (1528) reform of Franciscans
  • Oratorians (1575) St. Philip Neri
  • Theatines (1523) improve education of clergy
new religious orders31
New Religious Orders
  • Jesuits (Society of Jesus) (1540): 3 goals—reform church through education, preach
  • Gospel to pagan peoples, fight Protestantism
  • Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556): founder; organized in military fashion
  • Spiritual Exercises: contained ideas used to train Jesuits
spanish and italian inquisitions
Spanish and Italian Inquisitions
  • Spain: persecution of Mariscos (Christian Moors) & Marranos (Christian Jews)
  • Succeeded in bringing southern German and eastern Europe back to Catholicism
  • Sacred Congregation of the Holy Order, 1542, in papal states: Roman Inquisition
  • Index of Prohibited Books: catalogue of forbidden reading
  • Ended heresy in Papal States; rest of Italy not affected significantly
council of trent 3 sessions 1545 1563
Council of Trent (3 sessions 1545-1563)
  • Established Catholic dogma four next 4 centuries
  • Equal validity of Scripture, Church traditions, and writings of Church fathers
  • Salvation by both “good works’ and faith
  • 7 sacraments valid; transubstantiation reaffirmed
  • Monasticism, celibacy of clergy, and purgatory reaffirmed
  • approved Index of Forbidden Books
council of trent
Council of Trent
  • Church reforms: abuses in sale of indulgences curtailed, sale of church offices curtailed, ended nepotism
  • Bishops given greater control over clergy, seminaries established to train priests.
results of reformation
Results of Reformation
  • The unity of Western Christianity was shattered: Northern Europe (Scandinavia, England, much of Germany, parts of France, Switzerland, Scotland) adopted Protestantism.
  • Religious enthusiasm was rekindled – similar enthusiasm not seen since far back into the Middle Ages.
  • Abuses remedied: simony, pluralism, immoral or badly educated clergy were considerably remedied by the 17th century.
  • Religious wars broke out in Europe for well over a century.