By Dr.B.Ramadevi, M,Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D. Department of chemistry JNTUH-CEH kukatpally Hyderabad. • Definition • Types of Batteries • Primary Batteries A. Lithium cell, B. Leclanche cell • Secondary Batteries A. Lead-acid Batteries, B. Nicad Batteries, C. Lithium-ion Batteries. • Fuel cells / Flow Batteries. A. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell.
Battery :- • Definition : • A battery is a storage device used for the storage of chemical energy and for the transformation of chemical energy into electrical energy • Battery consists of group of two or more electric cells connected together electrically in series. • Battery acts as a portable source of electrical energy. • Energy produced by an electrochemical cell is not suitable for commercial purposes since they use salt bridge which produce internal resistance which results in drop in the voltage. The drop in voltage is negligible only for a small interval of time during which it is being used. • Batteries are of 3 types. Namely • Primary Batteries (or) Primary Cells • Secondary Batteries (or) Secondary Cells • Fuel Cells (or) Flow Batteries
I. Primary Batteries (or) Primary Cells :- • Primary cells are those cells in which the chemical reaction occurs only once and the cell becomes dead after sometime and it cannot be used again. These batteries are used as source of dc power. • Eg. Dry cell (Leclanche Cell) and Mercury cell,lithium cell. • Requirements of Primary cell: • It should satisfy these requirements • It must be convenient to use. • Cost of discharge should be low. • Stand-by power is desirable. • Dry cell (Leclanche Cell) • It consists of a cylindrical Zinc container that acts as an anode. A graphite rod placed in the centre (but not touching the base) acts as a cathode. The space between anode and cathode is packed with the paste of NH4Cl and ZnCl2 and the graphite rod is surrounded by powdered MnO2 and carbon as shown in Figure. The cell is called dry cell because of the absence of any liquid phase, even the electrolyte consists of NH4Cl ,ZnCl2 and MnO2 to which starch is added to make a thick paste which prevents leakage. The graphite rod is fitted with a metal cap and the cylinder is sealed at the top with a pitch.
The Zn-MnO2 cell (dry cell) is represented as Zn/Zn+2,NH4+/MnO2/C (EMF = 1.5V) Atanode : (Oxidation ) Zn(s) Zn+2(aq)+2e- AtCathode : (Reduction ) 2MnO2(s)+H2o+2e- Mn2O3(s)+2OH – The net cell reaction is Zn(s)+2MnO2(s)+H2O Zn2++ Mn2O3+ 2OH- The resulting OH-ions react with NH4Cl to produce NH3 which is not liberated as gas but immediately combines with the Zn2+ and the Cl- ions to form a complex salt[Zn(NH3)2Cl2] (diammine dichloro zinc). 2 NH4Cl + 2 OH- 2NH3 + Cl- +2 H2O Zn2+ + 2NH3 + 2 Cl- [Zn(NH3)2Cl2]
Advantages: 1) These cells have voltage ranging from 1.25v to 1.50v. 2) Primary cells are used in the torches,radios,transistors,hearing aids,pacemakers,watches etc. 3) Price is low. Disadvantages: These cells does not have a long life, because the acidic NH4Cl corrodes the container even when the cell is not in use.
Lithium cells :- Lithium Cells are Primary cells in which lithium acts as anode and cathode may differ. Lithium metal is used as anode because of its light weight, high standard oxidation potential(>3v) and good conductivity. As the reactivity of lithium in aqueous solution is more, Lithium cells use non aqueous solvents as electrolyte. Lithium cells are classified into two categories: a) Lithium cells with solid cathodes b) Lithium cells with liquid cathodes (a) Lithium cells with solid cathode: The electrolyte in these systems is a solid electrolyte most widely used cell is Lithium-Manganese dioxide cell(3V) MnO2 should be heated to over 3000C to remove water before keeping it in the cathode, there by the efficiency of the cell is increased. Anode: Lithium metal Cathode: MnO2 as an active material Electrolyte:LiBF4 salt in a solution of propylene carbonate and dimethoxy ethane.
Reactions: At Anode: Li Li+ +e- At Cathode: e-+ MnO2 MnO2- Net reaction:Li + MnO2 Li MnO2
Applications: 1) The coin type cells are used in watches and calculators 2) Cylindrical cells are used in fully automatic cameras. (b) Lithium cells with Liquid cathode: Lithium- Sulphur dioxide cell is an example of liquid cathode. The co-solvents used are acrylonitrile or propylene carbonate (or) mixture of the two with SO2 in 50% by volume. Cell reaction: 2Li + 2SO2 → LiS2O4 Lithium thionyl chloride cell is another example of liquid cathode. It consists of high surface area carbon cathode, a non-woven glass separator. Thionyl chloride acts as electrolyte and as cathode. Cell Reaction: At Cathode: 4Li → Li + 4e- At Anode: 4 Li + 4e- + 2 SOCl2 → 4 LiCl + SO2 +S 4 Li + 2 SOCl2 → 4 LiCl + SO2 +S In this cell no co- solvent is required as SOCl2 is a liquid with moderate vapour pressure. The discharging voltage is 3.3- 3.5 V. Uses: 1) They are used for military and space application. 2) In Medicinal devices like neuro-stimulators drug delivery system lithium batteries are widely used. 3) They are also used in electric circuit boards for supplying fixed voltage for memory protection and standby functions.
II. Secondary Cells (or) Accumulator batteries :- • These cells can be recharged by passing an electric current through them and can be used again and again. • Eg: A. Lead storage battery • B. Nickel-Cadmium battery • C. Lithium-ion cell battery • Secondary cells are widely used in cars,trains,motors,electric clocks, power stations, laboratories, emergency lights, telephone exchange, digital cameras, laptops etc. • These are reversible cells, they behave as galvanic cell while discharging and as electrolytic cell while charging. • To improve the performance of battery for commercial purpose • The anodes and cathodes with very small separation to conserve space are used. • Current discharge should be high at low temperature. • It should have less variation in voltage during discharge.
d) It should have high energy efficiency. % energy efficiency = energy released on discharge x 100 energy required for charge e) It should be reliable. f) It should have tolerance to shock, temperature etc. g) It should have number of charging and discharging cycles before failure of battery (Cycle life) Lead –acid battery: If a number of cells are connected in series, the arrangement is called a battery. The lead storage battery is one of the most common batteries that is used in the automobiles. A 12 V lead storage battery is generally used, which consists of six cells each providing 2 V. Each cell consists of a lead anode and a grid of lead packed with lead oxide as the cathode. These electrodes are arranged alternately, separated by a thin wooden piece and suspended in dil. H2SO4 (38%), which acts as an electrolyte (Fig. 1.13).Hence it is called Lead-acid battery. Anode: Pb Cathode:PbO2 Electrolyte: H2SO4(20.22%) EMF=2V
To increase the current output of each cell, the cathode and the anode plates are joined together, keeping them in alternate positions. The cells are connected parallel to each other (anode to anode and cathode to cathode). The cell is represented as Pb | PbSO4 (s), H2SO4 (aq.) | PbSO4 (s), Pb In the process of discharging, i.e. when battery produces current, the reactions at the electrodes are as follows: At anode: Pb Pb+2 + 2e- Pb (s) + SO4 (aq.) PbSO4 (s) At cathode: PbO2 (s) + SO4 (aq.) + 4H+ (aq.) + 2e– PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O Therefore, overall reaction is Pb (s) + PbO2 (s) + 4H2SO4 (aq.) 2PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O During discharging the battery, H2SO4 is consumed, and as a result, the density of H2SO4 falls; when it falls below 1.20 g/cm3, the battery needs recharging.In Discharging, the cell acts as a voltoic cell where oxidation of lead occurs. During recharging, the cell is operated like an electrolytic cell, i.e. electrical energy is supplied to it from an external source. The electrode reactions are the reverse of those that occur during discharge.
PbSO4 (s) + 2e– Pb (s) + SO4– – (aq.) PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O PbO2 (s) + 2H2SO4 + 2e– 2PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O Pb (s) + PbO2 (s) + 2H2SO4 (aq.) During this process, lead is deposited at the cathode, PbO2 is formed at the anode and H2SO4 is regenerated in the cell. Advantages: Lead acid batteries are used for supplying current to railways, mines, laboratories, hospitals, automobiles, power stations, telephone exchange, gas engine ignition, Ups (stand-by supplies). Other advantages are its rechargeability, portability and Its relatively constant potential & low cost. Disadvantages: Use of Conc.H2SO4 is dangerous, Use of lead battery is fragile. Nickel–cadmium cell (Nicad cell) It is rechargeable secondary cell. It consists of cadmium as the negative electrode (anode) and NiO2 acting as a positive electrode (cathode). Potassium hydroxide(KOH) is used as an electrolyte. The cell reaction during charging and discharging are as follows. Anode: Cd Cathode:NiO(OH) Electrolyte: KOH EMF=1.4V
At Anode Cd(S) + 2OH-(Aq) Cd(OH)2 (s) + 2e- At Cathode NiO(OH) (s) + 2H2O + 2e- 2 Ni(OH)2+ OH-(aq) Overall reaction Cd(s) + 2 Ni(OH) + 2H2O Cd(OH)2 (s) + 2 Ni(OH)2(s)
Advantages and uses • The Nickel-Cadmium cell has small size and high rate charge/discharge capacity, which makes it very useful. • It has also very low internal resistance and wide temperature range (up to 70°C). • It produces a potential about 1.4 volt and has longer life than lead storage cell. • These cells are used in electronic calculators, electronic flash units, transistors etc. • Ni- Cd cells are widely used in medical instrumentation and in emergency lighting, toys etc.
Fuel Cell : • Definition: A Fuel cell is an electrochemical cell which converts chemical energy contained in readily available fuel oxidant system into electrical energy. Principle: The basic principle of the fuel cell is same as that of electrochemical cell. The only difference is that the fuel & oxidant are stored outside the cell. Fuel and Oxidant are supplied continuously and separately to the electrodes at which they undergo redox reactions. Fuel cells are capable of supplying current as long as reactants are replenished. Fuel + Oxidant Oxidation Products + electricity Eg : 1)H2 -O2 fuel cell 2) Propane -O2 fuel cell 3) CH3OH-O2 fuel cell
A. Hydrogen – Oxygen fuel cell : - One of the most successful fuel cell is H2 –O2 fuel cell. The cell consists of two inert porous electrodes made of graphite impregnated with finely divided ‘Pt’ (or) Ni (or) Pd – Ag alloyand a solution of2.5% KOH as electrolyte. Anode Cathode Hydrogen Oxygen O- H Electrolyte Water Load Electron flow H2 & O2 gases are bubbled through anode & cathode compartments respectively. The following reactions takes place. Cell Reaction: At anode : 2H2 (g) + 4OH- 4H2O + 4e- At Cathode : O2 (g) + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH- Net Reaction :2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O, Ecell = 1.23V
A large no of these cells connected in series form a fuel-cell battery. In the production of electricity by this method, the byproducts are heat,CO2,water, which will not cause pollution of the environment. • Applications: • These are used as auxiliary energy source in space vehicles, submarines and other military vehicles. • The product water produced is a valuable source of fresh water for astronauts. • Fuel cell is preferred in spacecraft because of its lightness.
Advantages: • 1) Fuel cells have high efficiency. It is nearly 70% while other sources have efficiency 15-20% (gasoline engine) and 30-35%(diesel engine). • 2) The efficiency of the fuel cell does not depend on the size of the power plant. • 3) Maintience cost is very low. • 4) Fuel cells are more efficient in producing the mechanical power to drive the vehicles and require less energy consumption. • Disadvantages: • 1) Initial cost of fuel cell is high. • 2) Life time of fuel cell is not known accurately. • 3)There is a problem of durability and storage of large amount of hydrogen
GENERAL APPLICATIONS • Emergency power - Lithium cells, water activated batteries • Standby power - Lead acid • Medical implants , long life, low self discharge, high reliability - Lithium primary, button and special cells • Cordless equipment - NiCad, Lithium Ion • Hearing aids, watches, calculators, memory back up, wireless peripherals: Button and coin cells, Zinc air, Silver oxide.
Questions: 1) What are Batteries? How they are classified? 2) Differentiate Primary and Secondary cells? 3) What are the applications of Storage cell? 4) Give two examples of Secondary cells? 5) Describe the construction of secondary cell? Writes a reaction and mention its applications? 6) Why does a dry cells stops working after sometime even though it is not used? 7) Why Lead-acid storage battery has relatively constant potential? 8) Why a Salt bridge is not needed in Lead acid battery? Ans: When Oxidizing and reducing agents migrates from one half cell to the other, there is a need for separating half cells. Since in this battery, the oxidant PbO2 & reductant.Pb and the product PbSO4 are solids. The two half cells can be put in same vessel without separating them by using a Salt bridge. 9) What is a Fuel cell? Explain H2-O2 Fuel cell and its advantages? 10) Explain the composition, applications and advantages of Ni-Cd cell, Lithium cell and Lead-acid cell? 11) Give a comparative account of electrochemical cell and electrolytic cell?
Multiple choice questions: 1) A battery is a device that can operate a) as electrical cell b) as voltaic cell c) both as voltaic and electric cell d) None of the above 2) The cathode in Ni-Cd battery is composed of a) Cd b) Ni c) paste of NiO(OH) d) paste of Cd(OH)2 3) When storage cell acts as voltaic cell, the cell is said to be a) charging b) neutral c) discharging d) None of the above 4) During discharging operation in a Pb-acid cell, the concentration of H2SO4 a) decreases b) not affected c) increases d) H2SO4 is not used
5)During conductance, the chemical properties of the metallic conductor • a) altered greatly • b) not altered • C) altered to some extent • d) None of these • 6) A cell whose reaction is reversible is called • a) Fuel cell • b) Primary cell • C) Secondary cell • d) All the above • 7) An electrolytic cell is a device which converts • a) Electrical energy to chemical energy • b) chemical energy to Electrical energy • c) chemical energy to mechanical energy • d) mechanical energy to chemical energy • 8) Leclanche cell is a • Chemical cell • Electro chemical cell • Dry cell • Storage battery • Ans: 1) c 2) d 3)c 4)a 5)b 6)c 7)a 8)c
Reference Books: 1)Engineering Chemistry R.P.Mani,K.N.Mishra,B.RamaDevi,Cengage learning publications,New Delhi(2009). 2)Engineering Chemistry by P.C.Jain & M.Jain, Dhanpatrai & Co., New Delhi (2005).