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Normal Dysfluencies and Dysfluent Speech Patterns. 1. As children pass through the developmental stages of language learning, they will be more disfluent at certain times than others developmental periods of dysfuency are a normal occurrence

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normal dysfluencies and dysfluent speech patterns
Normal Dysfluencies and Dysfluent Speech Patterns
  • 1. As children pass through the developmental stages of language learning, they will be more disfluent at certain times than others
    • developmental periods of dysfuency are a normal occurrence
    • normally communicating children hit the peak of dysfluiecny usually between 2.5-4 years of age
    • normal dysfluencies characterized by
      • repetition of whole words and phrases
      • occasional interjections, “uh” “er”
incipient dysfluent behaviors
Incipient Dysfluent Behaviors
  • 2. Transitional stage most children leave behind
    • stage of development
  • 3. Dysfluencies of incipient stutterers are markedly different for those of normally developing counterparts
    • Rule of Thumb: the larger the linguistic unit, the less the concern
incipient dysfluent behaviors3
Incipient Dysfluent Behaviors
  • 4.Characteristics
    • -prolongations longer than
    • -repetitions of syllable and sounds
    • -use of schwa
    • -signs of physical struggle
    • -frequency and duration increases
    • -more than 5% of child’s speech characterized by repetitions of sounds or words AND more than 1% abnormally prolonged,
    • child has left the boundaries of normal developmental dysfluency
protocol for differentiating the incipient stutterer
Protocol for Differentiating the Incipient Stutterer
  • By Pindzola & White, 1986
  • instrument that synthesizes characteristics of incipient stuttering
  • places dysfluent behavior on a continuum and evaluates in cumulative impact of 21 possible behaviors in major categories
    • I. Auditory Behaviors
    • 2. Visual Evidence
    • 3. Historical/Psychological Indicators
wendell johnson s view
Wendell Johnson’s View
  • Part Word Repetitions
  • Whole word repetitions with either audible or visible signs of tensing
  • Interjections of Sounds, syllables
  • Revisions-Incomplete Phrases
  • Dysrhythmic phonations
    • prolongations
    • schwa vowel
  • Tense pauses
characteristics needed for a dysfluent speaker to be labeled a stutterer
Characteristics needed for a dysfluent speaker to be labeled a stutterer
  • 1. Behavior must have a developmental history beginning in childhood
  • 2. No identifiable etiological or maintaining factors
  • 3. Repetition patterns differ from normal speakers
  • 4. Symptoms can be modified by any number of clinical manipulations
  • 5. Allied or ‘secondary characteristics’ are not evident during fluent periods
  • 6. Speaker has internalized a belief system concerning communication acknowledging stuttering and recognizes difficulty of specific communication situations