Mexican Revolution via Murals 1750-1914
Teotihuacan Mexican Revolution via Murals As early as 1000 BCE – Toltecs, Aztecs and Maya adorned temples and public building with murals. Murals told stories of everyday life (Mexican Realism). Post-Spanish invasion = Christian murals Mexican Revolution = native Mexican culture again
Aztecscalled themselves Mexica Tenochtitlan Marketplace by Diego Rivera Mountains and lake provide natural defense of city 1345 Aztecs built Tenochtitlan at Lake Texcoco Snake on cloth represents Quetzalcoatl- goddess of creation The city was an important religious center filled with pyramids topped with temples What raw materials would be used to create mats? Petates, or mats, were woven out of reed Importance of family as mother carries child in rebozo Slave laborer is identified by simple loin cloth Moctezuma II 1502
Conquest by Jose Orozco Spanish Conquest Hernan Cortes 1519 Aztecs surrender 1521 Winged angel shows partnership of Church and Cortes Fire in background represents widespread destruction of Spanish soldiers and smallpox. Cortes is carrying an iron sword – resting on dismembered bodies of Aztec victim Aztecs had no metal to match iron’s strength What is this? Cortes is a machine… symbolic of European technology Small pox decimated Aztecs
Absorption of the Indian by Jose Orozco White European, Hernan Cortes, sits with an Indian woman, Malinche. Partnership Symbolic of mixing of two groups to create mestizo people. Mestizo make up majority of Mexicans today Yet, restraint – many Mexicans consider Mayan Malinche a traitor Legend: Malinche was given to Cortes as a translator – later they produced a son Dead mestizo shows unhappiness and ill-treatment of mestizo
Brutal labor of gold mines Colonial Domination by Diego Rivera Cross, Spanish flag and sword represent colonization Yoked to plow Cuauhtemoc, last Aztec emperor, bowing to conquistadors Huge land grants given to Spanish - encomiendas Conquistadores use branding iron to brand Indian slave Total Indian population fell from 25 million to 1 million by 1700 Rivera attempted to summarize 300 years Describe the European faces… Bag of gold Euro faces drawn as animals
Fight for Liberty by Jose Orozco Mexican Independence 1810-1821 Father Hidalgo (killed 1811) against Spanish rule Criollos – Spanish descent Color red – death and violence Priest’s collar and cross – role of Church in rebellion Masses of people – popularity of independence movement among Indians and mestizos. Hidalgo and Father Morelos both executed during war by Mexican creoles (Spanish decedents) Creole Agustin Iturbide then lead independence from Spain, but without reforms of masses What do you think a fiery machete represent? Machete is symbol of agriculture and fire is revolt.
Juaraz 1831-1872 and the Fall of the Empire by Jose Orozco Juarez - Zapotec Indian - first to bring legitimate reforms to Mexico Mexican flag – patriotism of middleclass Machetes in hands of peasants Violent colors Juarez leadership came against European intrusion from Spain and France Control of Church 1855 – overthrew dictator Santa Anna, began reforms 1862 – Mexico conquered by France (Napoleon III). Archduke Maximilian of Austria became Emperor of Mexico. Cinco de Mayo = Mexican victory, though French eventually won war. 1867- Juarez conquered Mexico City and executed Maximillian Then continued his reforms until his death in 1872
Repression – History and Perspective of Mexico Repression during rule of Porfirio Diaz (34 year rule) 1876 Diaz came to power – dictator for 34 years. Welcomed foreign investors Government forces on horse heavily loaded with weapons Police enforced Diaz’ laws Sickle represents farm workers Note force used to control farmers (land fell into hands of huge hacienda owners).
Revolution against Porfirian (Porfirio Diaz) Dictatorship 1911 unseated Diaz Peasants lost lands and were forced to work on large haciendas for little wage – conditions near slavery Government forces used to coerce the farm hands to work. Peasants responded by rebelling against government.
The Trenchby Jose Orozco Mexican Revolution By 1910,dissatisfaction of Diaz regime lead to open revolt. “Viva la Revolucion” Red – violent and bloody nature of 10-year long revolution Three soldiers mirroring the Christian Trinity, add religious element to the movement Sharp angles of bodies inject drama The carbines and rifle reinforce the atmosphere of revolution
Land Distribution by Diego Rivera Nation Culture changed as Zapata and Madero became heroes. 1910 – 2% owned land 1940 – 33% owned land (President Lazaro Cardenas) Madero became president 1911 Most tangible result of revolution was the redistribution of hacienda land to landless 1917 Constitution guaranteed lands and factory workers protection
1913 – Madero was assassinated • Revolts against the new president, Gernal Huerta (died in jail of liver failure 1816) came from caudillos (strongmen) Emiliano Zapata and Pacho Villa (assassinated 1923). • 1920 Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ruled Mexico from 1920 - 2000
Dan Lutgen Rancho Bernardo High School firstname.lastname@example.org