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FRONTIERS OF EMPIRE: EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA. America: Past and Present Chapter 4. Experiencing Diversity. 1700-1750--colonial population rises from 250,000 to over two million Much growth through natural increase Large influx of non-English Europeans. Forced Migration .

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frontiers of empire eighteenth century america


America: Past and Present

Chapter 4

experiencing diversity
Experiencing Diversity
  • 1700-1750--colonial population rises from 250,000 to over two million
  • Much growth through natural increase
  • Large influx of non-English Europeans
forced migration
Forced Migration
  • Transportation Act of 1718 allows judges to send convicted felons to American colonies
  • 50,000 convicts to America 1718-1775
    • Some felons were dangerous criminals
    • Most committed minor crimes against property
    • Life difficult for transported convicts
  • British praise system, colonists deplore it
ethnic cultures of the backcountry
Ethnic Cultures of the Backcountry
  • 800 miles along Appalachian Range from western Pennsylvania to western Georgia
  • Already populated by Native Americans and African-Americans
  • Large influx of European immigrants in the eighteenth century
scotch irish flee english oppression
Scotch-Irish Flee English Oppression
  • Many from Northern Ireland
  • Concentrate on the Pennsylvania frontier and Shenandoah Valley
  • Often regarded as a disruptive element
germans search for a better life
Germans Search for a Better Life
  • Fled from warfare in Germany
  • Admired as peaceful, hard-working farmers
  • Tried to preserve German language, customs
  • Aroused the prejudice of English neighbors
native americans define the middle ground
Native Americans Define the Middle Ground
  • Many eastern Indians moved into trans-Appalachian region
    • a "middle ground" where no colonial power was yet established
  • Remnants of different Indian peoples regrouped, formed new nations
  • European trade eventually weakened collective resistance to European aggression
spanish borderlands of the eighteenth century
Spanish Borderlands of the Eighteenth Century
  • Spain occupied a large part of America north of Mexico since sixteenth century
  • Range from Florida Peninsula to California
  • Indian resistance, lack of interest limited Spanish presence
  • Never a secure political or military hold on borderlands
conquering the northern frontier
Conquering the Northern Frontier
  • 1692—final establishment of Spanish rule in New Mexico after Popé’s revolt (1680)
  • 18th-century St. Augustine a Spanish military outpost unattractive to settlers
  • 1769—belated Spanish mission settlements in California to prevent Russian claims
peoples of the spanish borderlands
Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands
  • Slow growth of Spanish population in borderlands
  • Spanish influence architecture, language
  • Spanish influence over Native Americans
    • Spanish exploit native labor
    • Indians live in proximity to Spanish as despised lower class
    • Indians resist conversion to Catholicism
british colonies in an atlantic world
British Colonies in an Atlantic World
  • Change in eighteenth-century colonies
  • Growth of urban cosmopolitan culture
  • Aggressive participation in consumption
provincial cities
Provincial Cities
  • Urban areas included Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston
  • Economies were geared to commerce
  • Inhabitants took lead in adopting new fashions, the latest luxuries
  • Emulated British architecture
  • Cities attract colonists seeking opportunity
american enlightenment
American Enlightenment
  • An intellectual movement stressing reasoned investigation of beliefs and institutions
    • Optimistic view of human nature
    • View cosmos as orderly result of natural laws
    • Belief in perfectibility of the world
    • Search for practical ways of improving life
  • Mixed reception in America
benjamin franklin
Benjamin Franklin
  • Franklin (1706-1790) epitomized provincial, urban culture
  • Became a writer by emulating British literature
  • Achieved wealth through printing business
  • Dedicated to practical uses of reason, science
economic transformation
Economic Transformation
  • Rising demand for English, West Indian goods
  • Colonists paid for imports by
    • exporting tobacco, wheat, and rice
    • purchasing on credit
  • Dependence on commerce led to colonial resentment of English regulations
  • England restricted colonial manufacture or trade of timber, sugar, hats, and iron.
birth of a consumer society
Birth of a Consumer Society
  • English mass-production of consumer goods stimulated rise in colonial imports
  • Wealthy Americans began to build up large debts to English merchants
  • Intercolonial, West Indian trade earn colonists the surplus needed for imports
  • Inter-colonial commerce gave Americans a chance to learn about one another
religious revivals in provincial societies
Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies
  • The Great Awakening a series of revivals
    • revival: a phenomenon among Protestant Christians characterized by large meetings where large numbers experience religious conversion in response to gifted preaching
    • Awakening occurred at different places at different times
  • Revivals encouraged participants to question values of themselves and society
the voice of popular religion
The Voice of Popular Religion
  • George Whitefield symbolized the revivals
  • Whitefield preached outdoor sermons to thousands of people in nearly every colony
  • Itinerants disrupted established churches
  • Laypeople, including women and blacks, gain chance to shape their own religious institutions
  • The Awakening promoted a democratic, evangelical union of national extent
the awakening education and patriotism
The Awakening, Education, and Patriotism
  • Most revivalists well-trained ministers
  • Revivalists found Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers
  • Revivalists held optimistic attitudes toward America's religious role in world history
  • Fostered American patriotism
clash of political cultures
Clash of Political Cultures
  • Colonists attempted to emulate British political institutions
  • Effort led to discovery of how different they were from the English people
the english constitution
The English Constitution
  • The British Constitution universally admired
    • Not a written document, but a system of government based on statute and common law
  • Believed to balance monarchy, aristocracy and democracy
  • Balance believed to guarantee liberties
the reality of british politics
The Reality of British Politics
  • Less than 20% of English males could vote
  • Members of Parliament notorious for corruption and bribery
  • “Commonwealthmen” criticized corruption, urged return to truly balanced constitution
governing the colonies the american experience
Governing the Colonies: The American Experience
  • Colonists attempt to model England’s balanced constitution
  • Royal governors
    • Most incompetent
    • Most bound by instructions from England
    • Possessed little patronage for buying votes
    • Little power to force their will
  • Governors’ councils steadily lose influence
governing the colonies colonial assemblies
Governing the Colonies: Colonial Assemblies
  • Elected officials depended on popular sentiment
  • Assemblies more interested in pleasing constituents than in obeying the governor
  • Assemblies controlled all means of raising revenue
  • Assemblies jealously guarded their rights
  • Assemblies held more popular support than governor
broader horizons tighter bonds
Broader Horizons, Tighter Bonds
  • Commerce, communication, religion broaden colonists’ horizons by 1754
  • Colonial law courts increasingly adopt English usage
  • Growing awareness of ideas, institutions, problems shared with England, each other
century of imperial war
Century of Imperial War
  • British Americans increasingly drawn into European conflict during eighteenth century
  • Main opponents: France and Spain
  • Wars led to greater inter-colonial association and cooperation
king william s and queen anne s wars
King William's and Queen Anne's Wars
  • King William’s War (1689-1697): French frontier raids on New York, New England
  • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713): French frontier raids on North, Spanish South
  • Wars settled nothing
  • France subsequently extended her American empire from Canada into Louisiana
king george s war 1743 1748 and its aftermath
King George's War (1743-1748) and Its Aftermath
  • Embroiled colonists more extensively than earlier wars
  • 1745--New England troops captured Fort Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island
  • 1748--Louisbourg returned to France by Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle
  • 1750s--fresh conflict over Ohio Valley
albany congress and braddock s defeat
Albany Congress and Braddock's Defeat
  • Albany Congress, 1754--Benjamin Franklin propose plan for a central government
  • Albany Plan disliked by English and Americans, fails
  • 1755--General Edward Braddock leads force to drive French from Ohio Valley
  • Braddock’s army ambushed, destroyed
seven years war
Seven Years' War
  • 1756--England declares war on France
  • Prime Minister William Pitt leads English to concentrate on North America
  • 1759--Quebec captured
  • 1763--Peace of Paris cedes to Great Britain all North America east of Mississippi
perceptions of war
Perceptions of War
  • Colonists realize how strong they could be when they worked together
  • English learn that Americans took forever to organize, easier to command obedience
rule britannia
Rule Britannia?
  • Most Americans bound to England in 1763
  • Ties included
    • British culture
    • British consumer goods
    • British evangelists
    • British military victories
  • Empire seemed bound by affectionate ties