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0. Chapter Three. Atoms and the Periodic Table. 0. Atomic Theory. All matter is composed of atoms Atoms of each element are unique Atoms are composed of subatomic particles (protons, neutrons and electrons) Atoms combine to form compounds in definite proportions

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chapter three

0

Chapter Three

Atoms and the

Periodic Table

atomic theory

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Atomic Theory
  • All matter is composed of atoms
  • Atoms of each element are unique
  • Atoms are composed of subatomic particles (protons, neutrons and electrons)
  • Atoms combine to form compounds in definite proportions
  • Chemical compounds undergo changes in composition and identity in reactions, atoms remain unchanged
  • Atoms change identities in nuclear reactions
nature of the atom

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Nature of the Atom
  • Atoms are small 10-11 meters
  • 1 Angstrom = 10-10 meters
atomic number z

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Atomic Number (Z)
  • number of protons in nucleus
  • unique for each element
  • elements placed in periodic table by increasing number of protons

sodium has 11 protons 11Na

carbon has 6 protons 6C

elements are neutral

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Elements are neutral

Number of positive protons =

Number of negative electrons

mass number a

0

Mass Number (A)

Number of particles in the nucleus

Protons + Neutrons = Mass Number

Protons + Neutrons = Nucleons

isotopes

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Isotopes
  • Elements may have several different isotopes
  • Same number of protons, different number of neutrons
atomic weight

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Atomic Weight

The average mass number of all the naturally occurring isotopes according to relative abundance.

Lithium is 6.941. There is more lithium-7 than lithium-6

electrons in atoms

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Electrons in Atoms
  • Energy is quantized vs continuous
    • Quantize = step function
    • Continuous = all values are present
  • Similar to digital vs analog
shells subshells and orbitals

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Shells, Subshells and Orbitals
  • Shells
    • n = principle quantum number
    • Same as period on periodic table
  • Subshells
    • In each shell s > p > d > f
  • Orbitals
    • 2 electrons per orbital
orbitals

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Orbitals
  • s subshell – 1 orbital – 2 electrons
  • p subshell – 3 orbitals – 6 electrons
  • d subshell – 5 orbitals – 10 electrons
  • f subshell – 7 orbitals – 14 electrons
number of electrons in shells

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Number of Electrons in Shells

2n2

n is the number of the row in the periodic table

aufbau order of filling

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Aufbau – order of filling
  • 1s2
  • 2s22p6
  • 3s23p63d10
  • 4s24p64d104f14
  • 5s25p65d105f14(5g18)
  • 6s26p66d106f14(6g18)(6h22)
  • 7s27p67d106f14(6g18)(6h22)(7i26)
increasing energy

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Increasing Energy
  • 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6
  • Carbon 6 electrons
    • 1s22s22p2
  • Sodium 11 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s1
slide16

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  • Aluminum – 13 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s23p1
  • Calcium – 20 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s23p64s2
  • Iron – 26 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6
  • Bromine – 35 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5
using the periodic table

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Using the Periodic Table
  • Lithium – 3 electrons
    • 1s22s1
  • Sodium – 11 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s1
  • Potassium – 19 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s23p64s1
    • All end in “ns1” configuration
slide18
Fluorine – 9 electrons
    • 1s22s22p5
  • Chlorine – 17 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s23p5
  • Iodine – 53 electrons
    • 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p5
    • All end in “ns2np5” configuration
the periodic table
The Periodic Table
  • Classification by Properties
      • Arranged by increasing atomic number
      • Rows=periods, columns=groups (families)
    • Main Group – Representative
      • IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA
    • Transition Metals
      • 10 columns in middle of table
    • Inner-transition Metals
      • 14 columns at bottom of table
slide20
Elements in same column have similar properties
    • Cu, Ag and Au – shiny metals, malleable, conduct electricity
names of families
Names of Families
  • Alkali Metals (IA)

Na and K

  • Alkaline Earth Metals (IIA)

Mg and Ca

  • Halogens (VIIA)

F, Cl, Br and I

  • Noble Gases (Inert Gases) (VIIIA)

He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe

neighboring groups
Neighboring Groups
  • Metals
  • Non-metals
  • Metalloids (Semiconductors)
dot structures for atoms
Dot Structures for Atoms
  • Valence electrons for representative elements = group number
  • Octet rule
noble gas shorthand
Noble Gas Shorthand
  • [He] = 1s2

Li = 1s22s1 or [He]2s1

  • [Ne] = 1s22s22p6

Na = [Ne]3s1

Mg = [Ne]3s2

  • [Xe] = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p6

Ba = [Xe]6s2