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CFC Phaseout Implications for Commercial Cooling. Presented by Marie Broadwell US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX (415) 744-1174 Alphabet Soup. CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HFCs Hydrofluorocarbons.

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cfc phaseout implications for commercial cooling

CFC Phaseout Implications for Commercial Cooling

Presented by

Marie Broadwell

US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX

(415) 744-1174

alphabet soup
Alphabet Soup

CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons

HCFCs Hydrochlorofluorocarbons

HFCs Hydrofluorocarbons

  • Release of these refrigerants to the atmosphere causes
    • - Ozone depletion
    • - Global warming
common refrigerant applications
Common Refrigerant Applications

CFC-11 Centrifugal Chillers (low pressure)

CFC-12 Automotive Air Conditioning

Residential Refrigeration

Commercial Refrigeration

Centrifugal Chillers

HCFC-22 Unitary A/C & Heat Pumps

(Residential & Commercial)

Screw Compressors

Centrifugal Chillers (high pressure)

HFC-134a Centrifugal Chillers

Reciprocating Chillers

Automotive A/C

Residential & Commercial Refrigeration

epa recycling regulations
EPA Recycling Regulations
  • Purge losses OK, venting isn’t
  • Refrigeration technician certification
  • Recovery and recycling required
  • Refrigerant record keeping
  • Safe disposal requirements
  • Enforcement underway


epa stratospheric ozone hotline web site
EPA Stratospheric Ozone Hotline & Web Site

Hotline: 1-800-296-1996

what is the cfc phaseout
What is the CFC Phaseout?
  • U.S. response to stratospheric ozone depletion
  • 1990 Clean Air Act
  • CFC & HCFC production phaseouts
  • Mandatory refrigerant recycling
  • Significant New Alternatives Program (SNAP)
cfc phaseout schedule
CFC Phaseout Schedule

CFC production halted

January 1, 1996


HCFC Phaseout Schedule







HCFC-22 (new equipment)

HCFC-22 (existing equipment)

HCFC-123 (new equipment)

HCFC-123 (existing equipment)


What about HFCs?

  • HFCs Are Ozone-Safe
  • HFCs Contribute to Global Warming

No HFC Phaseout Scheduled

how does the cfc phaseout affect me
How Does the CFC Phaseout Affect Me?
  • No more CFC production
  • CFC shortages are here
  • Many CFC chillers still not converted
  • Large amounts of money at stake
conventional wisdom concentrate only on refrigeration systems
Conventional Wisdom:Concentrate only on refrigeration systems
  • Designate a facility refrigerant manager
  • Conduct inventory of equipment and refrigerants
  • Develop a refrigerant management plan
designate a refrigerant manager
Designate a Refrigerant Manager
  • Responsibility
  • Knowledge
  • Authority
  • Resources
  • Support
prepare an inventory
Prepare an Inventory
  • List chillers & refrigeration equipment, age, refrigerant type, condition
  • Monitor the amount of refrigerants bought & used
  • Evaluate leakage rates
develop an action plan
Develop an Action Plan
  • Define responsibilities of key personnel
  • Develop a CFC policy
  • Decide what to do with each piece of equipment
    • contain, retrofit or replace?
containment of cfc s


Containment of CFC’s
  • You may have CFCs in stock
  • Conserve CFC’s
    • regular equipment maintenance
    • leak repair
    • install high-efficiency purge units
  • Immediate strategy for all equipment
conversion of equipment
Conversion of Equipment
  • Substitute refrigerants

CFC-12 HFC-134a

CFC-11 HCFC-123

HCFC-22 HCFC-407c

  • Not “drop-in” substitutes
  • Modification to equipment & operation usually required
  • Refer to SNAP list for acceptability
replacement of equipment
Replacement of Equipment
  • Appropriate for equipment near end of its life
  • Gives wide choice of refrigerants & technologies
  • Don’t just design a new chiller, design a new chiller plant
    • Chillers make up 60% of connected load
    • Cooling towers, fans, & pumps make up 40% of load

Cooling end-use: 15%

Chiller end-use: 9%

(% of electrical energy)

beyond conventional wisdom the cfc phaseout is an opportunity
Beyond Conventional Wisdom:The CFC Phaseout Is an Opportunity
  • To better understand your entire building system and current chiller stock
    • Energy audit
    • Quantify your cooling energy use
  • To reduce cooling loads in your building
  • To “right-size” your equipment
the big opportunity integrated chiller retrofit
The Big Opportunity:Integrated Chiller Retrofit

Carefully consider

the interaction of all building systems -

it makes “Cool $ense”

voluntary government programs
Voluntary Government Programs


Rebuild America



Energy Star Buildings


community-based program

building owner-based program