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This presentation will probably involve audience discussion, which will create action items. Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentation
Deepak Alok (M.A. Previous)
Department of Linguistics
Banaras Hindu University
Email : email@example.com
he girl saw
‘He saw the girl.’
he Ram DAT girl showed
‘Ha showed Ram the girl’
he Ram DAT girl showed
‘He showed Ram the girl.’
he Ram by me girl get-see
‘He got Ram to show me the girl.’
likh ‘write’ -> likh-aa ‘dictate’ -> likh-baa ‘get written (by somebody)’
E.g. bhag-aa ‘to cause (somebody) to leave’
E.g. bhaga-baa ‘to get (somebody) cause (somebody) to leave’
bhag-baa ‘to get (sb) to cause (sb) leave’
dekh-baa‘to get (sb) show (st) to somebody’
kaT ‘get cut’ (intransitive)
kaaT ‘to cut’ (transitive)
kaT-aa ‘to get (sb) to cut (st)’
kaT-baa ‘to get (sb) to cut (st)’
baT ‘get divded’
bandh ‘get tied’
‘improve’ ‘get(sb) improve (sb/st)’
‘get out’ ‘get(sb) take out (st)’
dauR ‘to run’ dauR-aa dauR-baa
‘to run’ ‘cause to run’ ‘cause to run’
has ‘to laugh’ has-aa has-baa
‘to laugh’ ‘cause to laugh’ ‘ cause to laugh’
laR ‘to fight’ laR-aa laR-baa
‘to fight’ ‘cause to fight’ ‘cause to fight’
Thahar ‘to stay’Thahar-aa Thahar-baa
‘to stay’ ‘cause to stay’ ‘cause to stay’
dauR ‘to run’
A). raam okaraa khuub dauRai-l-kai.
Ram his lots cause- run
‘Ram made him run alot’
B.).raam okaraa khuub dauRa-bai-l-kai.
Ram his lot cause run
‘Ram made him run a lot’
(C) u nauaa se apan kes kaT-ai-l-ak/kaT-bai-l-ak.
He barbar by self hair cut/got cut
‘He got his (own) hair cut by the barbar’
(D) u nauaa se okar kes *kaT-ai-l-ak/kaT-bai-l-ak
He barbar by his hair cut/got cut
‘He got his hair cut by the barbar’.
In preliminary examination,it appears that in (C) both the forms are permitted because the action affects the causer himself whereas in (D),the only second causative form is permitted when the affected entity other than the self.
Transitive Ditransitive Causative
paR ‘read’ paR-aa ‘teach’ paR-baa
khaa ‘eat’ khi-aa ‘feed’ khi-baa
pi ‘drink’ pi-aa ‘give’ pi-baa
Magahi have also lexical causation.
Jaa(Intr) bhej-aa bhej-baa
‘go’ ‘send’ ‘get-send’
TuuT toR-aa toR-baa
A. readjustment of grammatical relation i.e. sub,obj indirect obj,oblique obj etc and
B. determining the case of the causee(s)
the extra noun phrase (causer) appears as the subject in the sentence and the subject of the intransitive verb functions as the direct object (causee)
papa goRbaa ke kudai-l-thi
father horse-ACC made-jump
‘The father caused the horse jump.’
In second causation, the multiple cause termed oblique objects, are marked by the instrumental postposition ‘se/diyaa’.
The causer NP, which functions as the subject, is in the nominative case (nominative case is not marked in Magahi)
E.g. maamaa bantiyaa se/diyaa ghar jharau-l-kai.
maternal uncle Banti-Obl house got-cleaned
‘Mama got the house cleaned by Banti.’
baabaa maamaa se bantiyaa diyaa ghar jhar-bau-l-thi.
Baba m.uncle obl Banti by house got-cleaned
‘Baba got Mama to clean the house by Banti.’
E.g.Bantiyaa kitaab paRkaii.
Banti book read
‘Banti read the book.’
Bantiyaa santiyaa ke kitaab paRau-l-kai.
Banti Santi ACC book taught
‘Banti taught Santi the book.’
Papa maastar se santiyaa ke kitaab paRbau-l-thi.
Father teacher by Santi ACC book taught
‘The father got the teacher to teach Santi the book.’
On the other hand, if the cause is agentive in function, it becomes an oblique object and is marked by the instrumental postposition ‘se/diyaa’as-
Nokar gaach kaaT-l-ak
Servant tree cut
‘The servant cut the tree’
Maalik nokar se/*ke gaachhiyaa kaT-ai-l-ak
Master servant by tree got cut
‘The master got the tree cut by the servant’
Maalik manejar se nokar diyaa gaachhiyaa kaT-bau-l-ak.
Master manejar by servant through tree got –cut
‘The master got the manejar cut the tree through the servant.’
But a handful of transitive verb such as
paR ‘to read’,khaa ‘to eat’,chikh ‘to teast ’
permit their causes to be marked by either the accusastive –dative postposition ‘ke’or the instrumantal postposition ‘se/diyaa’
ram choRaa ke kitaab paR-bau-l-ak.
Ram boy DAT book taught
‘Ram got the boy taught the book (by sb)’
ram choRaa se kitaab paR-bau-l-ak.
Ram boy by book read
‘Ram got the boy read the book’
But these two type of sentences differ in meaning. Using the accusative-dative postposition allows the cause to described as the ‘beneficiary’ of the action.while the use of the instrumental postposition allows the cause to described as the ‘instrument’ of the action.
The sub of the non transitive sentence with both indirect objs become an oblique obj in the corresponding causative construction to avoid doubling on indirect and direct obj,as it were. The oblique obj is marked by the instrumental postposition ‘se/diyaa or haathe’ as-
Bantiyaa santiyaa ke chiTThii likha-l-ak.
Banti santi DAT letter wrote
‘Banti wrote a letter to santi’
Bantiyaa mohan se santiyaa ke chiTThii likha-ai-l-ak/likha-bau-l-ak.
Banti Mohan by santi DAT letter got-written
‘Banti got Mohan write a letter to Santi’
Baabaa bantiyaa se santiyaa diyaa/haathe raam ke chiTthii di-bau-l-an.
Baba Banti by santi through Ram DAT letter cause gave
‘Baba got Banti send a letter to Ram through santi’
While describing the process of causativisation in Hindi,Yamuna kachru(1976) divided the verbs in to four syantactic sub classes.I used that in my paper because it is applicable in Magahi.
The derivation can be shown as below:
1) Vi kaT Vt kaaT Vcaus kaT-aa/kaT-baa
2) Vt khaa V khi-aa Vcaus khi-baa
3) Vt kar Vcaus kar-aa Vcaus kar-baa
4)Vdouble de Vcaus di-aa Vcaus di-baa
4th classes, the second level of
derivation does not imply the addition
of any ‘extra agent’ to the verbal case
frame .e.g (kar-aa= kar-baa and di-aa=
The analysis of causative construction in Magahi brings out following basic conclusion
“Chandra Prakashan, Mauri, Patna, Bihar.”
“University of Southern California”
“ University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign”