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Simple, Safe, Easy to Learn Water Bath Canning. Before preserving any food, consider the types of foods your family enjoys and the usefulness of the preserved product in your lifestyle. Today’s Topics. Learn how to save fresh produce all year long Learn what spoils food

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Simple, Safe, Easy to Learn

Water Bath Canning


Before preserving any food,

consider the types of foods your family enjoys and the usefulness of the preserved product in your lifestyle.


Today s topics
Today’s Topics

  • Learn how to save fresh produce all year long

  • Learn what spoils food

  • Learn how to use a water bath canner for safe food preservation


Basics for handling food safely
Basics for Handling Food Safely

  • Prevent bacteria from spreading through your kitchen

    • Wash hands:

      • Warm water and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling food

    • Sanitize: Cutting boards, utensils, and countertops

      • Use a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach in 1 gallon of water


Methods of Food Preservation

Canning

Freezing

Drying

Fermentation

Advantages of FoodPreservation

Year round availability of foods

Less spoilage

Eliminate or reduce microbial hazards

Increased convenience


Basics of home canning
Basics of Home Canning

  • Food is placed in a jar and is heated to a temperature

    • Destroys microorganisms

    • Inactivates enzymes that lead to food spoilage

  • During heating, air is driven from the jar

    • As cools, creates a vacuum seal


Unsafe methods of canning
UNsafe Methods of Canning

  • Open kettle

  • Oven

  • Microwave

  • Dishwasher

  • Steam

  • Canning powders

  • Jars with wire bales and glass lids

  • Zinc lids


Equipment needed for canning
Equipment Needed for Canning

  • Jars & Lids

  • Water bath canner

  • Pressure canner (dial or weighted gauge)

  • Canning rack

  • Jar lifter

  • Current safe canning recommendations


Jars and lids
Jars and Lids

  • Wash canning jars; don’t use if nicked or scratched

  • Prepare 2-piece canning lids and ring bands by package instructions

  • Remove air bubbles

  • Wipe jar rims with wet, clean cloth

  • Adjust two-piece lids; tighten fingertip-tight


Canning jars
Canning Jars

  • Glass, mason-type intended for canning

  • Available in regular or wide mouth

  • Two-piece self sealing lids

  • Range from 4 ounces (½ pint) to ½ gallon


Canning method
Canning Method

  • Approved canning methods depend on the type of food

  • Foods are divided into two main categories:

    • “Acid” Foods: Those that contain acid

    • “Low Acid” Foods: Those that have very little or no acid


Acid foods
“Acid” Foods

  • pH less than 4.6

    • Generally all fruits

    • Tomatoes, with added acid

    • Sauerkraut and fermented pickles

    • Foods to which large amounts of acid are added


Low acid foods
“Low Acid” Foods

  • pH greater than 4.6

    • Generally all vegetables

    • Meats

    • Poultry

    • Seafood

    • Soups

    • Mixed canned foods


Two methods of canning
Two Methods of Canning

  • Boiling Water Canning

    • Used for “acid” foods, pH below 4.6

  • Pressure Canning

    • Used for “low acid” foods, pH above 4.6


Methods of packing
Methods of Packing

  • Raw Packing

    • Raw food placed directly into jar; boiling hot liquid added to cover food

    • Carefully add jars to canner to avoid breakage from heat shock

  • Hot Packing

    • Food is cooked in liquid before packing; cooking liquid poured over food

    • Less floating of foods in the jar

    • Easier to pack, foods more pliable

    • Fewer jars needed


Canning fruit

Preventing Darkening

1 teaspoon (3000mg) ascorbic acid to one gallon of water

Commercial ascorbic acid mixture

Heating the fruit

Canning Liquids

Sweet syrup

Helps retain shape, color and flavor of fruit

Not necessary for safety

Juice

Commercial unsweetened apple, pineapple or white grape juice

Water

Can add non-nutritive sweeteners (Splenda®)

Missing preservative aspects of sugar

Canning Fruit


Acidifying tomatoes
Acidifying Tomatoes

  • pH between 4 and 4.6 (borderline for BWC)

  • Pints:

    • ¼ teaspoon citric acid

    • OR

    • 1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice

  • Quarts:

    • ½ teaspoon citric acid

    • OR

    • 2 tablespoons bottled lemon juice

  • Least taste change with citric acid

  • Add sugar to offset acid from lemon juice


Headspace
Headspace

  • The space in the top of the jar between the inside of the lid and the top of the food or liquid

  • Check directions for correct headspace for each food

  • ½ inch for fruits, tomatoes, and pickles


Process times affected by
Process Times Affected by:

  • Acidity of food

  • Preparation style of food

  • Composition of the food

    • Viscosity, tightness, heat transfer, starches/ fats/ bones

  • Temperature of food when jarred

  • Temperature of processing

  • Size & shape of jar


Boiling water canners
Boiling Water Canners

  • Removable perforated racks

  • Fitted lids

  • The canner must allow at least one inch of briskly boiling water over the tops of the jars during processing


Boiling water canning procedures
Boiling Water Canning Procedures

  • Start with about 6 inches of water in the canner

    • Hot packed jars – simmering water

    • Raw packed jars – hot water

  • Place jars on rack in canner

  • Water must be over the tops of the jars by at least one to two inches


Boiling water canning procedures1
Boiling Water Canning Procedures

  • Add more hot or boiling water if necessary

  • Begin timing the process when a full boil is reached

  • Adjust for altitude if over 1000 ft

  • After processing time is complete, turn off canner, remove lid and wait 5 minutes before removing jars

  • Remove jars straight up and out of canner and place on padded surface away from drafts

  • Cool 12 to 24 hours, undisturbed

  • Check seals

  • Remove rings

  • Wipe off jars before storing

  • Store in a cool, dry, dark place


Cooling jars
Cooling Jars

  • Remove jars from canner using a jar lifter

  • Do not retighten lids, as this may cut through the gasket and cause seal failures

  • Cool on towels or racks at room temperature 12 – 24 hours


Storing home canned food
Storing Home Canned Food

  • Label and date all jars

  • Store in a cool, dry, dark place

  • Avoid temperature extremes

  • Use within 1 year for best quality


Storing canner
Storing Canner

  • Thoroughly wash and dry canner and lid

  • Place crumpled clean paper or paper towels in it

  • Wrap lid in paper and turn upside down on the canner bottom


Summary
Summary

  • Canning food is an excellent way to preserve the harvest of summer for the months to come

  • Determine if the food is “acid” or “low acid”

  • Acidify tomato products

  • Allow adequate headspace

  • Start timing when water has returned to a boil


Questions
Questions?

“This material has not been peer-reviewed for statewide distribution -- blind peer review pending.”


References
References:

United States Department of Agriculture (2009).  Complete Guide to Home Canning.  Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 539.

University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service, National Center for Home Food Preservation.  www.uga.edu/nchfp

Ohio State University Extension, Canning Basics, http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/pdf/5338.pdf

Ohio State University Extension, Canning Tomatoes, http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/pdf/5336.pdf

Ohio State University Extension, Basics for Canning Fruit,http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/pdf/5343.pdf


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