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Ambient Networks: Mobile Communication Beyond 3G. Guest lecture in the course Distributed Systems Uppsala University 2006-12-05. Anders Gunnar Swedish Institute of Computer Science anders.gunnar@sics.se. The Network Vision. Services and Applications. New air interface.

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Ambient networks mobile communication beyond 3g l.jpg

Ambient Networks: Mobile Communication Beyond 3G

Guest lecture in the course Distributed Systems Uppsala University2006-12-05

Anders Gunnar

Swedish Institute of Computer Science

anders.gunnar@sics.se


The network vision l.jpg
The Network Vision

Services and

Applications

New air

interface

Downloadchannel

DAB

Wireline

DVB

xDSL

IP based core network

Networked services

cellular

WLAN

:

Return channel

GSM

IMT-2000

UMTS

Edge networks

Bluetooth, IR,

UWB, Mesh

Sensor, M2M, Dust


Ambient networks strategic objectives l.jpg
Ambient Networks Strategic Objectives

  • Scalable & Affordable networking supporting the dynamics of wireless access

  • Provide rich & easy to use communication services for all in a cost effective manner

  • Increase competition and dynamic cooperation of various players

  • Allow incremental market introduction of new technologies


Network challenges in the wireless world l.jpg
Network Challenges in the Wireless World

  • Heterogeneity

  • Terminal =========== PANs

  • Vertical =========== Horizontal layering

  • Network intelligence ==Edge

  • Cellular vs. IP

  • Multi-service, - operator, - access

  • Affordability

  • User in the centre

  • Trust Model

  • Always connected


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • The Ambient Networks Concept

  • Components of the Architecture

  • Technical Solutions

    • Node ID Architecture

  • Project organisation

    • Project Partners

    • Timeline

    • Organisation

  • Summary



  • Requirements posed on the an architecture l.jpg
    Requirements posed on theAN Architecture

    • Heterogeneous Networks

    • Mobility

    • Composition

    • Security and Privacy

    • Backward Compatibility and Migration

    • Network Robustness and Fault Tolerance

    • Quality of Service

    • Multi-Domain Support

    • Accountability

    • Context Communications

    • Extensibility of the Network Services Provided

    • Application Innovation and Usability


    The ambient networks idea l.jpg

    Services

    Services

    Services

    Ambient Control Space

    Ambient Connectivity

    3G

    LTE

    Corporate

    4G

    WLAN

    Fixed

    Community

    Personal

    Home

    Vehicular

    PAN

    VAN

    The Ambient Networks Idea

    • Ambient Networks:

    • Common Control Services

    • Networks at the edge

    • Auto-configuration

    • Scalability


    The ambient control space l.jpg

    AmbientServiceInterface

    AmbientConnectivity

    Multi-RadioResourceManagement

    ContextInformation

    AmbientNetworkInterface

    AmbientNetworkInterface

    AdvancedMobilityManagement

    OverlaySupportLayer

    AmbientResourceInterface

    AgreementEstablishment

    Security

    P2PManagement

    The Ambient Control Space

    Ambient Control Space


    Framework functions l.jpg

    Concurrently operating functions communicate through messages

    Logically centralized registryfor information aggregationand dissemination

    Conflictresolutionand consistencymaintenance

    AmbientConnectivity

    AmbientServiceInterface

    Multi-RadioResourceManagement

    ContextInformation

    ResourceRegistry

    ConflictResolution

    MessagePassing

    RoutingGroupInformation

    OverlaySupportLayer

    AgreementEstablishment

    AmbientResourceInterface

    AmbientNetworkInterface

    Naming

    TrafficEngineering

    Framework Functions


    Slide11 l.jpg

    CIB

    ------------

    Resource

    Registry

    Comp.

    Agreem.

    ---------

    Policy

    & AAA

    Realisation Architecture of the Ambient Control Space

    Ambient Applications

    ASI

    Composition Coordination

    Bearer & OverlayManagement

    INQA & SLA

    Management

    Composition Agreement Negotiation

    Mobility

    Management

    Composition

    Management

    Active Sets

    configure Onode

    To other ANs

    ANI

    Triggers /Advertisements

    Flow Management

    & MRRM

    NetworkManagement

    Trigger & Context

    Management

    Security domain

    Management

    Connectivity Mgmt

    Generic Link Layer

    ARI

    Ambient Connectivity


    Composition concepts l.jpg
    CompositionConcepts

    • A network composition is the negotiation and the realization of a cooperation agreement among diverse Ambient Networks.

    • Composed Ambient Networks cooperate, and appear as a single Ambient Network to the outside.

    • The composition procedure is typically plug&play.


    Composition networking example 1 l.jpg

    PAN

    PAN

    PAN

    Composition NetworkingExample 1

    Ambient Networks composing to form an ad-hoc AN scenario, flat composition


    Composition networking example 2 l.jpg
    Composition NetworkingExample 2

    PANs compose with a moving network which provides connectivity to a cellular network

    Cell.

    Train

    PAN

    PAN


    Composition networking example 3 l.jpg

    Op 1

    Op 2

    PAN

    PAN

    Composition NetworkingExample 3

    Customers can roam into networks where operators have made no agreements before


    An bootstrapping l.jpg

    Bootstrapping

    Composition

    ANbootstrapping

    • Ambient Network Node (ANN)

    • Embodies one or more Functional Entities of the ACS

    • It is required to implement a basic ACS, which encompasses a basic set ofFunctional Entities including plug&play management, basic security (incl. ID management), and continuous connectivity

    • Exposes a basic ANI to allow communication inside the cluster of ANNs

    • Ambient Network (AN)

    • Embodies all mandatory Functional Entities of the ACS (a minimum ACS)

    • “Composition” is a mandatory Functional Entity, which also contains the necessary AN-ID used to identify the legal entities in a Composition Agreement

    • Exposes a minimum ANI

    • An AN is required to implement a minimum ACS and a minimum ANI, but not limited to it


    Bootstrapping composition l.jpg

    Composed AN

    AN

    ID

    AN

    ANN

    ANN

    ANN

    ANN

    ANN

    Basic ANI

    Basic ANI

    ANN

    ANN

    ID

    ID

    ANI

    Bootstrapping/Composition

    ID

    ANN


    Composition processes and procedures l.jpg
    CompositionProcesses and Procedures

    • The process of Ambient Network Composition can be applied recursively.

      • Composed network may compose again.

      • An Ambient Networks may take part multiple different composed networks concurrently.

    • Three basic phases

      • Attachment

      • Agreement negotiation

      • Agreement implementation and maintenance

    • Procedures of composition identified so far:

      • Composition creation/ extension

      • Composition Agreement modification

      • Decomposition



    Goals for the node id architecture l.jpg
    Goals for theNode ID Architecture

    • Working across heterogeneous domains

    • Treat dynamic changes in a scalable manner

    • A consistent architecture

    • Make technologies, address domains and middleboxes first-order components of the architecture

    • Support privacy, denial-of-service protection, and an always-on security model

    • Strong incentives for migration and deployment

    • Significant benefits for adopters even during partial deployment


    Node id architecture overview l.jpg

    Applications

    Transport

    • Old assumptions:

    • Point-point connectivity

    • Trusted environment

    • No mobility

    • No multi-homing

    • Best effort

    OLD

    IP

    L2

    L1

    Node ID Architecture Overview

    Applications

    Transport

    • New assumptions:

    • Multi-point connectivity

    • Untrusted environment

    • Mobility

    • Multi-homing

    • QoS

    NEW

    Node

    ID

    IPvX/L3

    L2

    L1


    Node id arcitecture details l.jpg
    Node ID Arcitecture Details

    • The key design elements of the node ID architecture are

      • Independent LDs

      • Reliance on self-managed, cryptographic NIDs

      • Hybrid routing (locator+NID)

      • Router referrals to avoid a single administration

      • NID-based e2e security, privacy, and DoS-protection

      • Integrated local, e2e and network mobility


    Security l.jpg
    Security

    • Initial handshake (~ HIP) provides an always-on security model; subsequent packets are protected

    • The handshake also has basic DoS protection

    • Additionally, nodes can manage their NIDs and NID routers in a Hi3-like manner to provide network-based DoS protection

    • NIDs can be changed on the fly for privacy reasons, and NID routers provide location privacy


    Assumption 1 l.jpg
    Assumption 1

    • The network consists of individual Locator Domains (LDs)

      • LD is one routing domain using (a) the same locator namespace and (b) consistent routing system

      • Within an LD nodes can freely communicate, without relying on external mechanisms

        For simplicity think of AN=LD


    Assumption 2 l.jpg
    Assumption 2

    • Connectivity between LDs is dynamic

      • Routing changes, multi-homing or mobility events of nodes or networks

        We assume that there exists a stable core and

        mobility occurs at the edge

    Core network

    LD4

    LD2

    LD3

    LD1

    LD13

    LD5

    LD6

    LD11

    LD10

    LD7

    LD9

    LD12

    LD8


    Assumption 3 l.jpg
    Assumption 3

    • No distinction between hosts and routers

      • Traditional hosts can become routers, such as when a phone becomes the router for a PAN attached to the phone

      • Servers that act as forwarding agents for mobility purposes


    Hybrid routing l.jpg
    Hybrid Routing

    • We have routing on the LD internally (e.g. OSPF) as well as routing on NIDs by the NID routers

    • This allows us to benefit from internal routing and scales better

    • Still, handling NID routing in a completely free form topology would be challenging

    • As a result, we assume a core and default routes up; a tree-like structure emerges

    • Different routing problems in (a) edge trees (b) core

      Use a routing hint to reduce routing state:

    • A hint to somewhere where the location of a Node ID is known!?


    The routing hint l.jpg

    IPv4 Header

    Node ID Header

    ESP Payload

    Destination = NR3

    Destination NID = A

    Destination NR = NR4

    ...

    ...

    The Routing Hint

    A hint to somewhere where the location of a Node ID is known!?


    Establishing connectivity l.jpg
    Establishing connectivity

    • DNS/Naming Resolution X

    • A.LD1.com

    • NID_A

    • NID_NR3

    CN

    Lookup (default path)

    Registration

    Core NID router lookup service (DHT, table…)

    NR 4

    NR 3

    LD 4

    LD 3

    LD 6

    NR 6

    NR 1

    LD 1

    B

    Well known default path

    Known through registration

    NR 5

    NR 2

    A

    LD 2

    LD 5

    The Node ID architecture so far


    Mobility and multi homing l.jpg

    A

    B

    B

    B

    A

    A

    A

    A

    A

    Mobility andMulti-homing

    • Integrates local mobility, end-to-end mobility, and network mobility

    • Even makes network-based multi-homing possible

    (a)

    (b)

    (c)


    Routing enhancements l.jpg
    Routing Enhancements

    • Route on LD_ID’s instead of NID’s

    • Enable use of multiple paths to core

      • Capability aware routing

      • Registration vs new routing protocol

    • Disconnected operation



    Project partners l.jpg

    Alcatel

    Alcatel

    DaimlerChrysler

    DaimlerChrysler

    Ericsson

    Ericsson

    Elisa

    Elisa

    DoCoMo Eurolab

    DoCoMo Eurolab

    KTH

    KTH

    Ericsson

    Ericsson

    Ericsson

    Ericsson

    SICS

    SICS

    Nokia

    Nokia

    Fraunhofer FOKUS

    Fraunhofer FOKUS

    TeliaSonera

    TeliaSonera

    VTT

    VTT

    Lucent

    Lucent

    RWTH Aachen University

    RWTH Aachen University

    Telenor

    Telenor

    Siemens

    Siemens

    TU Berlin

    TU Berlin

    BT

    BT

    Univ.of Ottawa

    Univ.of Ottawa

    Lucent

    Lucent

    Concordia Univ.

    Concordia Univ.

    TNO

    TNO

    NEC

    NEC

    Roke Manor Research

    Roke Manor Research

    UCL

    UCL

    AGH University

    AGH University

    Univ. of Surrey

    Univ. of Surrey

    Vodafone

    Vodafone

    Siemens ANF Data

    Siemens ANF Data

    France Telecom

    France Telecom

    Budapest University

    Budapest University

    Nortel

    Nortel

    Ericsson

    Ericsson

    Critical Software

    Critical Software

    Siemens Austria

    Siemens Austria

    INESC Porto

    INESC Porto

    Telefonica

    Telefonica

    CFR

    CFR

    Univ. of Cantabria

    Univ. of Cantabria

    NICTA

    NICTA

    Siemens Mobile

    Siemens Mobile

    Vodafone

    Vodafone

    Univ.of South Wales

    Univ.of South Wales

    Greece

    Greece

    Project Partners

    Financed by the European Commission (50%)

    Budget: 20 000 000 EURO


    Timeline of the project l.jpg

    Phase 1

    Phase 2

    Phase 3

    Phase 3

    Phase 1

    Phase 2

    Establishing the

    Establishing the

    Work

    Work

    -

    -

    Areas

    Areas

    Technology

    Technology

    System Synthesis

    System Synthesis

    Ambient Networks

    Ambient Networks

    Development

    Development

    Concept and its

    Concept and its

    Feasibility

    Feasibility

    Architecture,

    Architecture,

    Concepts &

    Concepts &

    Architecture:

    Architecture:

    Standards

    Standards

    I: Concepts

    I: Concepts

    Architecture Design

    Architecture Design

    Scalability,

    Evolvability

    and

    and

    Architecture

    Architecture

    Feasibility,

    Optimisation for

    Detailed Specification,

    II: Key

    II: Key

    Functions of AN

    Performance

    Technical Development,

    Control Space

    and Deployment

    Performance

    Technical

    Problems

    Problems

    III: Business

    III: Business

    Market Dissemination

    Business Interfaces

    Business Feasibility

    Interfaces and

    Interfaces and

    Commercial

    Commercial

    Viability

    Viability

    Integration across

    WWI,

    IV:

    IV:

    Validation,

    Usability/Networks

    Usability/Networks

    Prototyping

    Prototyping

    Market

    Prototypes

    Test Cases

    and Validation

    and Validation

    Dissemination

    Timeline of the Project



    Summary l.jpg
    Summary

    • AN project provides a new networking concept

    • AN Highlights

      • Composition

      • Modular ACS

      • ASI, ANI, ARI

    • Phase 2 will provide a comprehensive A N prototype

      This talk is available at :

      http://www.sics.se/~aeg/talks/uppsala061205.ppt


    Further reading l.jpg
    Further Reading

    Project web page:

    http://www.ambient-networks.org

    Deliverable:

    D 1.5 AN Framework Architecture

    Paper:

    "A Node Identity Internetworking Architecture", Bengt Ahlgren, Jari Arkko, Lars Eggert and Jarno Rajahalme. 9th IEEE Global Internet Symposium , Barcelona, Spain, April 28-29, 2006.


    Master thesis project l.jpg
    Master thesis project

    www.sics.se/cna/exjobb.html