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Adapting to Life on Land. Chapter 21.1. Characteristics of Plants (233). Review Photosynthesis Video. Multicellular eukaryote Nucleus has true nucleus Membrane-bound organelles Thick cell walls of cellulose Stem and leaves have waxy waterproof coating called _______________.

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adapting to life on land

Adapting to Life on Land

Chapter 21.1

Hickox: Baker High School

characteristics of plants 233
Characteristics of Plants (233)

Review Photosynthesis Video

  • Multicellular eukaryote
  • Nucleus has true nucleus
  • Membrane-bound organelles
  • Thick cell walls of cellulose
  • Stem and leaves have waxy waterproof coating called _______________.
  • The cuticle helps plants to reduce water loss

cuticle

Hickox: Baker High School

cuticle of a stem
Cuticle of a stem

Hickox: Baker High School

what are the basic plant organs 234
What are the basic plant organs? (234)

leaf

Photosynthesis RAP

Plant video: Form and Structure

  • A ________ is a plant organ that grows from the stem.
    • Photosynthesis usually occurs here
    • Plants have uniquely different shapes & sizes

Hickox: Baker High School

what are the basic plant organs 2345
What are the basic plant organs? (234)

Roots

Root hairs increase absorption area

_________ are the plant organ

that absorbs water and nutrients

  • Tissues transport
  • Anchor a plant to ground
  • Some function as food

storage (sweet potatoes)

Hickox: Baker High School

basic plant organs 234
Basic plant organs (234)

stem

  • A __________ provides support for growth
    • Moves water from roots to leaves
    • Moves sugar (food) from leaves to roots
    • Contains tissues for transporting food, water and other materials
    • Sometimes contain food storage or photosynthesis

Hickox: Baker High School

non seed vascular plants 22 2
Non-seed Vascular Plants 22.2

rhizome

sporangia

sorus

What is the structure of ferns?

1. (has roots, stems, and leaves)

2. The main stem is underground and is called a ________.

3. On the under area of a frond, the leaves you may see tiny brown circles. These clusters are spore-producing __________. Each cluster forms a _______.

Hickox: Baker High School

slide8

Most plants we are familiar with have stemsmade of tube-like, long cells for transportingwater and food called ________ ______

Most of the vascular

tissue is found in the

trunkandstems

Vascular tissue

Water Transport Video

Hickox: Baker High School

vascular and nonvascular plants 235
Vascular and Nonvascular Plants (235)

Vascular plants

long distance

  • Plants that contain vascular tissue are called ___________ _________.
    • Can transport water a _________ _________
    • Have fibers to be able to grow tall
  • Nonvascular plants include mosses, hornworts, and liverworts and do not contain vascular tissue.
    • Reproduce with alternations of generations
    • Only are a few cells thick
    • Water and nutrients travel by osmosis
    • Live close to the ground

Hickox: Baker High School

hornwort nonvascular plant
Hornwort (Nonvascular plant)

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nonvascular plants
Nonvascular Plants

Liverworts

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nonvascular plants13
Nonvascular Plants

Moss

Reproduction in Mosses Video

Hickox: Baker High School

what is a seed 235
What is a seed? (235)

seed

diploid

29)A __________ is a plant organ that contains an embryo and food supply covered in a hard protective coat.

30) Protects the embryo from drying out

31) Seed are __________, since they contain two of each kind of chromosome.

32) In non-seed plants such as in mosses and fern, the sperm require a film of water on the plant in order to reach the EGG.

  • This is why moist habitats are required

Hickox: Baker High School

slide15
Seed

Embryo

Seed coat

Food supply

COTYLEDON

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what is alternation of generations in plants 235
What is alternation of generations in plants? (235)

gametophyte

haploid

spores

diploid

haploid

male

female

33) Includes two stages, one generation is the ____________ generation, which produces gametes of ___________ cells.

34) During the sporophyte generation, _______ are produced, which are _________.

35) In non-seed vascular plants such as ferns, spores are released and grow into ____________ gametophyte plants, producing _______ and _________ gametes.

Hickox: Baker High School

alternation of generations
Alternation of Generations

Asexual reproduction

(2n)

Sexual reproduction

(1n)

Hickox: Baker High School

Hickox: Baker High School Biology.

fern life cycle alternation of generations
Fern Life Cycle (alternation of generations)

36) In non-seed vascular plants such as ferns, spores are released and grow into haploidgametophyte plants, produce male andfemale gametes.

Hickox: Baker High School

slide31

Alternation of Generations

Hickox: Baker High School

slide32

Mature Fern

Sorus under frond

Sporangium with spore

diploid

haploid

Egg and Sperm

unite producing

Sporophyte

Young sporophyte

Spore Germinates

Prothallus

Archegonia & antheridium on

Prothallus

Hickox: Baker High School

non seed vascular plants 22 233
Non-seed Vascular Plants 22.2

sporangia

  • Sporangia

(spores)

  • Frond
  • Under frond

- Sorus

Hickox: Baker High School

slide34

Chapter 22.1 Reinforcement and Study Guide page 97

  • 9. Nonvascular plants are not as common or as widespread as vascular plants (B) the life functions of nonvascular plants require a close association with water.
  • 10. The life cycle of nonvascular plants includes an alternation of generation between a (c) diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte)
  • Fossil and genetic evidence suggests that the first land plants were (C) liverworts.
  • Chapter 22.2 Reinforcement and Study Guide page 98
  • Unlike vascular plants, the spore-producing (1) sporophyte is the dominant generation in vascular plants. A major advance in vascular plants was the adaptation of (2) leaves to form structures that protect the developing (3) reproductive cells or zygote.

Hickox: Baker High School

slide35

What is a plant? (21.1 Adapting to Life on Land)

  • (Alternation of Generations) (6 – 18)
  • The lives of all plants consist of two alternating stages, or (6) generations. The gametophyte generation of a plant is responsible for development of (7) gametes. All cells of the gametophyte, including the gametes are haploid. The (9) sporophyte generation is responsible for the production of spores. All cells of the sporophyte are (10) diploid . The spores are produced by the sporophyte plant by (11) meiosis and are, therefore, haploid.
  • The lives of seed plants include two generations that alternate.
  • The generation of a plant responsible for producing gametes is the gametophyte generation.
  • Gametophyte spores are haploid and sporophyte tissue cells are diploid.

Hickox: Baker High School

slide36

What is a plant? (21.1 Adapting to Life on Land)

  • Non-seed plants release spores into the environment that grow into gametophytes.
  • What is the difference between vascular and nonvascular plants? Vascular plants have long, tube-like cells that form tissues that transport food, water, and other materials. Nonvascular plants have thin tissues that allow nutrients and water to travel from one cell to another by osmosis and diffusion.
  • Some land plants produce seeds. What is their function? How do they differ from spores? Seeds protect the embryos and spores protect haploid cells and keep them from drying out. Seeds have a diploid embryo and a food supply that are covered with a protective coat. Spores have a haploid cell with a hard protective covering.

Hickox: Baker High School

slide37

What is a plant? (21.1 Adapting to Life on Land)

18. How do algae and land plants take in substances? Algae live in water and absorb dissolved substances directly into their cells. Most land plants absorb dissolved substances from the soil.

Hickox: Baker High School

survey of the plant kingdom 21 2 238
Survey of the Plant Kingdom 21.2 (238)

Botanists

37) Phylogeny of Plants (evolutionary history)

  • Scientists who study plants are ________

38) Non-seed Plants: use sporesto reproduce.

39) Hepaticophytes: non-seed plants called liverworts; nonvascular, use osmosis and diffusion, to absorb water & nutrients

40) May be ancestors to all plants.

Hickox: Baker High School

survey of the plant kingdom 21 2 239
Survey of the Plant Kingdom 21.2 (239)

Hornworts

41) Anthocerophytes are very small, nonvascular and grow in damp shady habitats. They rely on osmosisand diffusion to transport nutrients. Are also called _____________ (resemble horns of animals)

Hickox: Baker High School

survey of the plant kingdom 21 2 23940
Survey of the Plant Kingdom 21.2 (239)

42) Bryophytes: are the mosses; are nonvascular; have cells that transport water and sugar. Usually less than 5 cm. tall.

Mosses

Hickox: Baker High School

vascular plants
Vascular plants

Club mosses

43) Lycophytes: Vascular plants that have stems, roots, and leaves. Another name are the ______________

Hickox: Baker High School

seed plants
Seed Plants:

44) Seed Plants:Have a seed that consists of a plant embryo and a foodsupply and covered by a hard protective coat. All seed plants have vascular tissue

Hickox: Baker High School

vascular plants43
Vascular plants

cones

Sega palms

Cycads:

45) Look like palm trees but are not.

46) Produce male and female ________, are scaly structures that support male or female reproductive structures.

  • 47) Commonly called ________________

Hickox: Baker High School

slide44

Cycads

Hickox: Baker High School

survey of the plant kingdom 21 2 241
Survey of the Plant Kingdom 21.2 (241)

Ginkgophytes: Ginkgo biloba are small trees with fan-shaped leaves. Male and female reproductive structures on separate trees.

Hickox: Baker High School

slide46

Ginkgo biloba: male Ginkgo biloba: female

Ginkgo biloba:

sperm

Hickox: Baker High School

conifers
Conifers

cone

47) Conifers are _________ bearing trees.

48) Pine, fir, cypress, and redwood

49) Produce seeds in cones

50) Many have needlelike leaves

Hickox: Baker High School

slide48

Douglas Fir: Conifer

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slide49

Giant Sequoia: Conifer

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slide50

Pacific yew: Conifer

Common Juniper: Conifer

Pine Tree:

Conifer

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anthophytes
Anthophytes:

Intro to Gymno and Angio

Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms

Plant reproduction Methods Video

Flowers and

Fruits

Anthophytes:

51) Only Flowering plants

52) Produce flowers from which fruits develop

53) A fruit usually contains one or more seeds

Hickox: Baker High School

slide52

Chapter 22.1 Reinforcement an Study Guide page 97

  • Nonvascular plants are successful in habitats with adequate water.
  • The gametophyte generation is dominant in nonvascular plants.
  • Sperm are produced in male reproductive structures called antheridia, and the eggs are produced in female reproductive structures called archegonia.
  • Mosses have colorless multicellular structures called rhizoids, which help anchor the stem to the soil. (underground stem)
  • Most liverworts have cuticles, or an oily or a shiny surface that helps reduce evaporation of the water from the plant’s tissue.
  • Liverworts occur in many environments and include two groups: the thalloseliverworts and the leafy liverworts.
  • One unique feature of hornworts is the presence of one to several chloroplasts in each cell.
  • The common names for the nonvasculare plants in bryophyta, ehpaticophyta, and anthocerphyta are mosses, liverworts,hornworts.

Hickox: Baker High School

slide53

Chapter 22.2 Reinforcement and Study Guide page 98

  • In some non-seed vascular plants, spore-bearing leaves form a compact cluster called a(n) (4) strobilus . Spores are released from this compact cluster. These spores then grow to form the gametophyte, called a(n) (5) prothallus. This structure is relatively small and lives in or on soil. The prothallus then forms (6) antheridia, male reproductive structures, and (7) archegonia, female reproductive structures. (8) Sperm are released from an antheridium and swim through a film of water to the (9) egg in an archegonium. (10) Fertilization occurs and a large, dominant sporophyte plant
  • develops from the (11) zygote.Do not grade 12,13,14,15
  • 12. (false) The leafy stems of lycophytes resemble clubs, and their reproductive structures are moss shaped.
  • (true) The leaves of lycophytes occur as pairs, whorls, or spirals along the stem.
  • (false) Lycophytes are simple vascular plants with creeping leaves.
  • (true) The club moss is commonly called ground pine because it is evergreen and resembles a miniature pine tree.

Hickox: Baker High School

slide54

Chapter 22.2 Reinforcement and Study Guide page 99

  • The hollow-stemmed horsetail appears to be jointed with scalelike leaves surrounding each joint.
  • The most recognized generation of ferns is the sporophyte generation.
  • The gametophyte in most ferns is a thin, flat structure.
  • In most ferns, the main stem, called a rhizome is underground. It contains many starch-filled cells for storage.
  • The leaves of a fern are called fronds and grow upward from the rhizome.
  • Fronds are often divided into pinnae , which are attached to a central rachis.
  • Ferns were the first vascular plants to evolve leaves with branching veins of vascular ranchis.
  • The common names for the seedless vascular plants, lycophyta, arthrophyta, and pterophyta are club or spike mosses, horsetails, ferns.

Hickox: Baker High School

seed plants 22 3 250
Seed Plants 22.3 (250)

Pollen grain

ovule

seed

What is a seed plant?

  • Vascular plant that produces seeds.
  • Seeds are surrounded by fruit or scales of a cone.
  • In the sporophyte, the spores develop into male and female gametophytes.
  • The male gametophyte is inside the ______ _______
  • The female gametophyte produces the egg cell inside the __________.
  • The ovule form the _______ after fertilization. (the union of egg and sperm).
  • After fertilization, the zygote develops into an embryo.

Hickox: Baker High School

seed plants 22 3 251
Seed Plants 22.3 (251)

cotyledons

  • Embryos of seed plants include one or more ____________.
  • Cotyledons for the developing embryo.
  • Cotyledons are leaf-like structures on the plant’s stems, when the plant comes through the soil.

Hickox: Baker High School

seed plants 22 3 25157
Seed Plants 22.3 (251)

What are the advantages of seeds?

  • A seed is an embryo and its food supply is inside tough outer coating.
  • Two groups: those whose seeds are not protected by fruit are called _____________ or “naked seeds”.
  • Seeds that are protected by fruit are called ______________. A fruit includes ripened

ovary of a flower.

gymnosperms

angiosperms

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anatomy of a flower 22 3
Anatomy of a Flower 22.3

pistil

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slide59

113.

anther

pollen

filament

Stamen

Male parts:

Hickox: Baker High School

slide60

ovary

Pistil

Female parts:

Style (pollen tube)

Stigma (sticky)

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slide61

ovary

anther

filament

Pollen lands on stigma, travels down pollen tube until it units with ovary at fertilization.

style

stigma

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monocot vs dicots
Monocot vs. Dicots

What are monocot and dicots?

61) Monocotyledons have one seed leaf or monocot. Monocots also have 1 food source called a cotyledon.

62) Dicotyledons have two seed leaves or dicot. Dicots also have 2 food sources are called cotyledons.

Monocots vs Dicots Video

Hickox: Baker High School

slide63

Flowering plants are either monocots or dicots

Seed

Root

Stem

Leaf

Flower

one cotyledon in seed

Monocots

root xylem and

phloem in a ring

vascular bundles

scattered in stem

leaf veins form a

parallel pattern

flower parts in threes

and multiples of three

two cotyledons in seed

Dicots

root phloem

between arms of

xylem

vascular bundles

in a distinct ring

leaf veins form a

net pattern

flower parts in fours or

fives and their multiples

Hickox: Baker High School

monocot versus dicot
Monocot versus Dicot
  • Monocots (Single cotyledon)
    • Root vascular tissue occurs in ring.
    • Parallel leaf venation.
    • Flowers in 3s or multiple of 3s
  • Dicots (Two cotyledons)
    • Xylem and phloem scattered
    • Netted leaf venation.
    • Flowers in 4s or 5s or multiples of 4s or 5s

Hickox: Baker High School

slide65

Life Span of a Plant

63). Plants that live for only one year or less; they sprout from seeds, grow, reproduce and then die are ___________.

64) Most are green stem and have no woody tissue.

65) Examples are _______, peas, _______

annuals

beans

corn

Hickox: Baker High School

slide66

Life Span of a Plant (255)

66) Plants that have two year life spans are _________. During the first year biennials grow leaves and develop a strong root system. During the second year, food storedin the roots is used to produce new shoot, flowers, and seeds.

67) Examples are _________, beets, and _______

biennials

carrots

turnips

Hickox: Baker High School

slide67

perennials

Life Span of a Plant (255) 116.

68)___________ live for several years. They produce flowers and seed periodically, usually once a year. They have woody stems and roots remain dormant.

69)Examples are __________ , ___________, and _____________

strawberries

asparagus

brambles

Hickox: Baker High School

slide68

Plant Tissues

70) Sclerenchyma cells are thick and rigid.

71) Provide support and strength

72) Source of fiber for rope & linen.

Plant Tissues

73) ___________ functions like the skin of an animal.

74) Protects with waxy cuticle

(prevents water loss)

Epidermis

Hickox: Baker High School

slide69

Stomata

Plant Tissues

75) __________ are openings in the leaf that control the exchange of gases.

What Gasses? ___________What Molecules? _____

76) Two ___________ surround each stoma and controls the flow of water vapor from the leaf.

guard cells

STOMATA VIDEO

Hickox: Baker High School

stomata
Stomata

Hickox: Baker High School

transport tissues
Transport Tissues

What do vascular tissue transport?

77) __________ is made of tube-like cells that transport water. (xylem up)

78) _________ transports sugars in long tubes arranged end to end with sieve plates.

(phloem down)

Xylem

Phloem

Hickox: Baker High School

roots stems and leaves
Roots, Stems, and Leaves

Roots

79) Are plant organs

80) Anchor a plant

81) Absorb water and dissolved minerals

82) Contain vascular tissues

83)____________ are single thick structures with smaller branching roots.

84) Store food

85) Examples are beets and carrots

taproots

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root hairs increase surface area
Root Hairs Increase Surface Area

Hickox: Baker High School

roots stems and leaves 23 2
Roots, Stems, and Leaves 23.2

Fibrous

Roots

85). ____________ roots have many small branching roots that grow from a central point. Grass is a good example

  • Proproots, found in corn plants begin above ground and help support.

___________ __________ ____________

Tap roots

Fibrous roots

Prop roots

Hickox: Baker High School

roots stems and leaves 23 276
Roots, Stems, and Leaves 23.2

What is transpiration?

87) The loss of water through the stomata is called ________________

88) The waxy cuticle and stomata help reduce water loss

transpiration

Transpiration video

Hickox: Baker High School