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A History of Wildlife Conservation : What have we learned in 150 years?. Conservation Biology 22-24 September 2004. History of Conservation. Why North America ? - Clear examples of our worst and our best - Milestones from 1850 to 2004 - Philosophies & politics of natural resources

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a history of wildlife conservation what have we learned in 150 years

A History of Wildlife Conservation:What have we learned in 150 years?

Conservation Biology

22-24 September 2004

history of conservation
History of Conservation
  • Why North America?

- Clear examples of our worst and our best

- Milestones from 1850 to 2004

- Philosophies & politics of natural resources

  • Foundations of Conservation Biology:

- Biological Diversity: assessment & losses

- Sustainable development of human populations

european origins and the american experience
European Origins and the American Experience
  • Medieval Europe & hunting preserves.
  • Hunting & use of resources in the colonies.
  •  Rise of the common man & the concept of public ownership of natural resources.
  • Six (?) Periods in our history of exploitation and conservation of natural resources in North America.
time periods in conservation
Time Periods in Conservation
  • Prior to 1850: Wilderness and Abundance
  • 1850-1900: Depletion of Natural Resources
  • 1900-1932: Regulation and Preservation
  • 1933-1961: Resource Management
  • 1962-1980: Environmental Concern
  • 1981- (?) : Global Environment and

Sustainable Development

prior to 1850 wilderness and abundance

littleimpact

  • subsistence hunting
Prior to 1850: Wilderness and Abundance
  • Few people with little impact
  • Subsistence hunting vs. market hunting
  • Values and ethics of natural resources use throughout our history
  • Utilitarian values & views of nature
  • Intrinsic value of the natural world
  • Transcendentalism: H.D. Thoreau - Walden Pond - 1854
1850 1900 depletion of resources
1850‑1900: Depletion of Resources
  • Immigration from Europe: American population,

1840 = 17 million, 1850 = 23 mill., 1860 = 32 million

  • Railroads and market hunting
  • Deliberate destruction of bison (5 million in 1872) herds and Native Americans
  • Early Restrictions and Organizations
  • 1872 ‑ Yellowstone National Park
  • 1885 ‑ Adirondack Forest Preserve
  • 1892 - Sierra Club, Founded by John Muir
1900 1932 period of regulation preservation
1900‑1932: Period of Regulation & Preservation
  • The Lacy Act - 1900
  • President Theodore Roosevelt (1858‑1919)
  • Gifford Pinchot and the concept of "Conservation"

1900 ‑ American Society of Foresters

  • Power of the Federal Government in conservation
  • Restrictive regulations ‑ buck laws in Pennsylvania
  • 1916 Migratory Bird Treaty with Canada 
  • The early career of Aldo Leopold
1900 1932 period of regulation preservation8
1900‑1932: Period of Regulation & Preservation
  • The Lacy Act - 1900
  • President Theodore Roosevelt (1858‑1919)
  • Gifford Pinchot and the concept of "Conservation"

1900 ‑ Am. Society of Foresters

  • Power of the Federal Government in conservation
  • Restrictive regulations ‑ buck laws in Pennsylvania
  • 1916 Migratory Bird Treaty with Canada 
  • The early career of Aldo Leopold
1933 1961 period of resource management
1933‑1961: Period of Resource Management
  • Aldo Leopold 1933. Game Management
  • Growing influence Federal Government & FDR
  • 1935 ‑ North American Wildlife Conference
  • First Cooperative Wildlife Research Units (OSU)
  • 1937 ‑ Pittman‑Robertson Act
  • The Wildlife Society
  • Growth of scientific wildlife training and research
  • Others?
1962 1980 period of environmental concern legislative response
1962‑1980: Period of Environmental Concern &Legislative Response
  • Rachel Carson. 1962. Silent Spring
  • New technologies applied ‑ chemical restraint,
  • telemetry, computerized models
  • Toxicology, Bioaccumulation of DDT
  • 1970 ‑ The first Earth Day
  • 1973 ‑ Endangered Species Act & the EPA
  • 1980 ‑ Presidential Election
  • - Other important events?
1981 present global concerns sustainable development
1981 ‑ Present: Global Concerns & Sustainable Development
  • Soule and Wilcox 1980. Conservation Biology
  • E.O. Wilson. 1992. Diversity of Life
  • Concern for global conservation & extinction
  • Earth Summit (Rio 1992) Biological diversity
  • 1997 – Kyoto Protocol (greenhouse gases)
  • Realism and revision of environmental laws
  • Goal of sustainable development
  • 1994 & 2000 Congressional & Presidential Elections
1981 present global concerns sustainable development12
1981 ‑ Present: Global Concerns & Sustainable Development
  • Soule and Wilcox 1980. Conservation Biology
  • E.O. Wilson. 1992. Diversity of Life
  • Concern for global conservation & extinction
  • Earth Summit (Rio 1992) Biological diversity
  • 1997 – Kyoto Protocol (greenhouse gases)
  • Realism and revision of environmental laws
  • Goal of sustainable development
  • 1994 & 2000 Congressional & Presidential Elections
what have we learned 1850 2004
What have we learned (1850-2004)?
  • Natural resources are public property
  • Personal leadership & public concern periodically drives governmental action
  • Issues change but underlying forces and views of nature (utilitarian vs. intrinsic value) remain.
  • Fundamental issue: Human population growth and resource consumption.
  • What should we do in 2004 & the future?