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Video Recording

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video recording

Video Recording


videotape recording systems
Videotape Recording Systems
  • Principle - Video and audio signals magnetically recorded in analog or digital form, and converted again into pictures and sound at playback
  • VTR - video tape recorder
videotape recording systems4
Videotape Recording Systems
  • Basic video tracks - audio and video are separate
  • Most VTR’s have minimum of 4 tracks
    • video track- two audio tracks- control track
key concept 1
Key Concept 1
  • Videotape recorders record video and audio signals and a variety of other information necessary for proper operation of the tape and identification of each individual frame.
videotape recording systems6
Videotape Recording Systems
  • Two simultaneous movements
    • Video tape moves across video and audio recording heads
    • Video tape recording head moves at the same time to maximize amount of information stored on the video track. Movement of tape across video head is slanted (helical scanning process).
videotape recording systems7
Videotape Recording Systems
  • Audio tracks recorded by stationary head on edge of tape
  • Can be up to four tracks
  • Typically normal tracks are along edge and can provide stereo if necessary
  • Hi-Fidelity tracks are imbedded within video track. (A video edit affects hi fi audio.)
videotape recording systems8
Videotape Recording Systems
  • Control track allows 30 sync pulses per second for timing
  • Maintains TV standard of 30 frames per second
  • Address code (SMPTE) time code on another track
analog and digital vtr systems
Analog and Digital VTR Systems
  • Analog - fluctuating signal identical to original audio or video
  • Digital - original signal converted to binary data and translated back to analog at playback
  • Digital Advantage - no deterioration with age or generation copying
video recording systems
Video Recording Systems
  • NTSC - National Television Systems Committee
    • Composite
  • Y/C Component
  • RGB Component
  • Other Systems (Europe)
    • PAL and SECAM
composite systems
Composite Systems
  • Composite system - video signal combines color (or C signal) with the luminance (Y-signal.
  • One wire carries the C (RGB) signal and the Y (black and white)
  • The combined signal is the NTSC signal (National Television System Committee)
y c component system
Y/C Component System
  • Y signal (luminance or black and white) and C signal (RGB or color) are kept separate until recorded on tape.
  • Separated again at playback.
  • Advantage is higher picture quality
rgb component system
RGB Component System
  • Red, Green, and Blue video signals preserved throughout recording process.
  • Sent as 3 separate signals to tape
  • The 3 signals are the three components
key concept 2
Key Concept 2
  • Videotapes recorded on Y/C component or RGB component VTRs CANNOT be played back on similar composite (NTSC) equipment.
types of videotape recorders
Types of Videotape Recorders
  • Analog and Digital
  • Standalone or Docking (to a camera)
  • Component and Composite
primary analog videotape formats
Primary Analog Videotape Formats
  • BetacamSP - 1/2 inch cassette - Y/C component
  • S-VHS - 1/2 inch cassette Y/C system signal transport but composite recording
  • VHS - 1/2 inch cassette NTSC composite. Just under pro quality
  • Hi8 - 8 mm cassette Y/C component or composite output
analog formats still around
Analog Formats Still Around
  • 1 inch VTR - Reel to reel 1 inch tape NTSC Composite
  • U-matic - 3/4 inch cassette, NTSC Composite
  • MII (m2) - 1/2 inch cassette. Y/C component
digital videotape formats
Digital Videotape Formats
  • D-1: 1 inch reel to reel RGB
  • D-2: 19 mm cassette NTSC
  • D-3: 1/2 inch cassette NTSC
  • D-5: 1/2 inch cassette RGB component
  • D-6: 19 mm cassette RGB component
  • D-7: SMPTE classification of DVCPRO
digital videotape formats19
Digital Videotape Formats
  • Digital Betacam: 1/2 inch cassette RGB Component
  • Digital S: 1/2 inch cassette Y/C component
  • DVCPRO: Panasonic 1/4 inch RGB component
  • DVCAM 1/4 inch RGB component
tape formats
Tape Formats
  • Width of tape and recording method
  • No correlation between width and quality
  • Quality has improved with new generations of narrow tape widths
time base corrector
Time Base Corrector
  • Picture stabilizing equipment
  • Prevents jittery picture
  • Synchronizes scanning cycles
videotape recording process
Videotape Recording Process
  • Before Checklist
    • Schedule - Assure taping equipment is available
    • VTR Status - Do a tape check.
    • Power Supply - Enough Batteries? Is AC power acceptable
    • Tape - Make sure it’s the right format for your recorder
videotape recording process23
Videotape Recording Process
  • Before Checklist
    • Audio Level - Check levels before recording
    • Monitor - Check scenes as recorded. Make sure your monitor is compatible with recording format. Do you have power (or battery) for monitor.
key concept 3
Key Concept 3
  • Make sure the cassette format matches the VTR and the cassette tab is in place for recording
videotape recording process25
Videotape Recording Process
  • During Checklist
    • Video Leader - 30 to 6 seconds of tone and color bars, ID slate and countdown 10 to 3 with 2 seconds of black
    • Tape Counter - reset before starting tape
    • PreRoll - make sure machine is up to speed before any leader recording
videotape recording process26
Videotape Recording Process
  • Recording levels - monitor video and audio levels carefully
  • Recording for Post Production - Overlap action for editing ease
  • Retakes - Let director know immediately if one is required
  • Record Keeping - Keep accurate records
key concept 4
Key Concept 4
  • The video leader must be generated by the equipment actually used in the videotape recording.
key concept 5
Key Concept 5
  • Keep an accurate field log during the recording session and carefully label all videotapes
videotape recording process29
Videotape Recording Process
  • After Checklist
    • Recording check - do you have it on tape
    • Labeling - label with tape number, title, and number of scenes
    • Protection Copies - dub all source tapes for backup
key concept 6
Key Concept 6
  • Always make protection copies of all source tapes.
nonlinear storage systems
NonLinear Storage Systems
  • Analog and Video tape is searched from start to finish
  • Nonlinear storage allows direct access to any chronological part
key concept 7
Key Concept 7
  • Nonlinear digital storage devices allow random and almost instantaneous access to each video frame.
nonlinear storage devices
Nonlinear storage devices
  • Computer disks
    • still shots on floppies
    • motions shots on hard drives (fixed or removable)
  • ESS - Electronic Still Store systems (super fast slide projectors)
  • Read/Write optical discs
  • CD-Roms and DVDs
use of video recording
Use of Video Recording
  • Now an important personal communication medium.
  • Desktop video is prevalent.
  • Marriage of Video and Computers makes multimedia popular and effective.
interactive video
Interactive Video
  • Viewer has some control over what is seen and heard
  • Viewer exercises options or impacts order of what is viewed
  • Video games are all around us
key concept 8
Key Concept 8
  • Interactive video allows the viewer to exercise choice with immediate feedback.
  • Simultaneous display of text, still and moving images and sound.
  • Generally distributed on CD Rom.