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Understanding Community Ecology through Network Theory/Analysis . J. Alison Bryant Department of Telecommunications Indiana University, Bloomington 8 November 2004 . Four Needs in Organizational Theory.

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understanding community ecology through network theory analysis

Understanding Community Ecology through Network Theory/Analysis

J. Alison Bryant

Department of Telecommunications

Indiana University, Bloomington

8 November 2004

four needs in organizational theory

Four Needs in Organizational Theory

to understand organizational evolution from the level of the community(e.g., Aldrich, 1999; Astley, 1985; Baum, 1996; G. R. Carroll & Hannan, 1999; DiMaggio, 1994; Ruef, 2000);

to more systematically understand the complex relationships within the community(Baum, 1996);

to incorporate network analysis in the study of community ecology(DiMaggio, 1994); and

advance our understanding of organization by constructing network theories of organization (Salancik, 1995)

slide3
The coevolution of an organizational community is the evolution of the community’s network structure of interactions/relationships
slide4

ENVIRONMENT

COMMUNITY

Thingy 1

Gadget A

Thingy 2

Gadget B

Thingy 3

Gadget C

Widget X

ORGANIZATION

Widget Y

Widget Z

POPULATION

community ecology basics

Community Ecology Basics

Subsumes population ecology and bridges to environment – coevolution of populations of organizations

Incorporates punctuated equilibrium model of change(Tushman & Romanelli, 1985)

Open Environmental Space

Symbiosis and Commensalism

symbiotic relationship (+,+);

commensalistic relationships:

full mutualism (+,+)

partial mutualism (+,0)

neutrality (0,0)

predatory competition (+,-)

partial competition (-,0)

full competition (-,-)

The purpose of the community is to buffer populations from the environment.(Hawley, 1950;1982; Barnett, 1994)

community ecology through network theory analysis
Community Ecology through Network Theory/Analysis
  • The whole, not just the part
  • The structure of the network can elucidate the current “fitness” [or “effectiveness”] of the community?
  • Can look @ how structures of relationships overtime enable collective, as well as individual, interests
  • Better able to deal with multiple types of relationships
networks perspective on community ecology

Networks Perspective on Community Ecology

  • Symbiosis and Commensalism
    • symbiotic relationship (+,+);
    • commensalistic relationships:
      • full mutualism (+,+)
      • partial mutualism (+,0)
      • neutrality (0,0)
      • predatory competition (+,-)
      • partial competition (-,0)
      • full competition (-,-)

The creation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships within the community (network) is the key mechanism by which communities emerge, evolve, and collapse –

∆ in network structure explains ∆ in community fitness

Articulation of community ecology concepts in network terms:

Variation, Selection, & Retention

Density Dependence

Open Environmental Space

Punctuated Equilibrium

Symbiotic and Commensalistic Relationships

  • An “effective” network will buffer populations from the environment.
phases of community coevolution

Phases of Community Coevolution

Emergence

Maintenance

Self-Sufficiency

Transformation

Dissolution

the children s television community

The Children’s Television Community

Who? Educational Content Creators

Entertainment Content Creators

Content Programmers

Toy Companies

Advertisers

Governmental Bodies

Advocacy Groups

Philanthropic Organizations

When? 1953-2002

Where? United States

How? & Why?

slide11

ENVIRONMENT

Governmental Bodies

Content Programmers

Educational Content Creators

COMMUNITY

ORGANIZATION

POPULATION

a very brief history of children s tv

A Very Brief History of Children’s TV

1950s

1960s

2000s

1970s

1980s

1990s

1940s

methodology

Methodology

  • Data Coding:
    • 560 Network Ties (10 Time Periods, 8x8 Network Matrices)
    • Key Environmental Events

Participants:

20 key players in each population over the past 50 years, e.g.,

Creators of Sesame Street and Children’s Television Workshop

Dir. of Research,Viacom Media/former Dir. of Research, Nick Jr./Nickelodeon

President, Mediascope/former VP for Programming, ABC Family & Fox Family

Founder, Action for Children’s Television

Former Director of Research, Children’s Television Workshop

Director, Center for Media Education

President, DIC Entertainment

Data Collection:

In-depth Interviews

Network Data Questionnaire

Historical Records

slide14

Educational Content Creators

Entertainment Content Creators

Content Programmers

Toy Tie-In Companies

Advertisers

Governmental Bodies

Advocacy Groups

Philanthropic Organizations

Educational Content Creators

relationship to

Entertainment Content Creators

relationship to

Content Programmers

relationship to

Toy Tie-In Companies

relationship to

Advertisers

relationship to

Governmental Bodies

relationship to

Advocacy Groups

relationship to

Philanthropic Organizations

relationship to

environmental events in the history of the children s tv community

Public Broadcasting Act of 1967

1963-1967

Penetration of Cable

1983-1987

Children’s Television Act of 1990

1988-1992

Three-Hour Rule (Addendum to CTA in 1996)

1993-1997

Environmental Events in the History of the Children’s TV Community
limitations future directions

Limitations:

  • Data Collection
    • One case study
    • Network Data Questionnaire
    • Macro-level Events
  • Data Analysis
    • Small networks
    • Need to use dynamic network analysis

Limitations/Future Directions

  • Future Directions:
  • Further data collection (children’s media community and other communities)
  • More multilevel, emergent analysis