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  1. Understanding Community Ecology through Network Theory/Analysis J. Alison Bryant Department of Telecommunications Indiana University, Bloomington 8 November 2004

  2. Four Needs in Organizational Theory to understand organizational evolution from the level of the community(e.g., Aldrich, 1999; Astley, 1985; Baum, 1996; G. R. Carroll & Hannan, 1999; DiMaggio, 1994; Ruef, 2000); to more systematically understand the complex relationships within the community(Baum, 1996); to incorporate network analysis in the study of community ecology(DiMaggio, 1994); and advance our understanding of organization by constructing network theories of organization (Salancik, 1995)

  3. The coevolution of an organizational community is the evolution of the community’s network structure of interactions/relationships

  4. ENVIRONMENT COMMUNITY Thingy 1 Gadget A Thingy 2 Gadget B Thingy 3 Gadget C Widget X ORGANIZATION Widget Y Widget Z POPULATION

  5. Community Ecology Basics Subsumes population ecology and bridges to environment – coevolution of populations of organizations Incorporates punctuated equilibrium model of change(Tushman & Romanelli, 1985) Open Environmental Space Symbiosis and Commensalism symbiotic relationship (+,+); commensalistic relationships: full mutualism (+,+) partial mutualism (+,0) neutrality (0,0) predatory competition (+,-) partial competition (-,0) full competition (-,-) The purpose of the community is to buffer populations from the environment.(Hawley, 1950;1982; Barnett, 1994)

  6. Community Ecology through Network Theory/Analysis • The whole, not just the part • The structure of the network can elucidate the current “fitness” [or “effectiveness”] of the community? • Can look @ how structures of relationships overtime enable collective, as well as individual, interests • Better able to deal with multiple types of relationships

  7. Networks Perspective on Community Ecology • Symbiosis and Commensalism • symbiotic relationship (+,+); • commensalistic relationships: • full mutualism (+,+) • partial mutualism (+,0) • neutrality (0,0) • predatory competition (+,-) • partial competition (-,0) • full competition (-,-) The creation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships within the community (network) is the key mechanism by which communities emerge, evolve, and collapse – ∆ in network structure explains ∆ in community fitness Articulation of community ecology concepts in network terms: Variation, Selection, & Retention Density Dependence Open Environmental Space Punctuated Equilibrium Symbiotic and Commensalistic Relationships • An “effective” network will buffer populations from the environment.

  8. Phases of Community Coevolution Emergence Maintenance Self-Sufficiency Transformation Dissolution

  9. An example…

  10. The Children’s Television Community Who? Educational Content Creators Entertainment Content Creators Content Programmers Toy Companies Advertisers Governmental Bodies Advocacy Groups Philanthropic Organizations When? 1953-2002 Where? United States How? & Why?

  11. ENVIRONMENT Governmental Bodies Content Programmers Educational Content Creators COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION POPULATION

  12. A Very Brief History of Children’s TV 1950s 1960s 2000s 1970s 1980s 1990s 1940s

  13. Methodology • Data Coding: • 560 Network Ties (10 Time Periods, 8x8 Network Matrices) • Key Environmental Events Participants: 20 key players in each population over the past 50 years, e.g., Creators of Sesame Street and Children’s Television Workshop Dir. of Research,Viacom Media/former Dir. of Research, Nick Jr./Nickelodeon President, Mediascope/former VP for Programming, ABC Family & Fox Family Founder, Action for Children’s Television Former Director of Research, Children’s Television Workshop Director, Center for Media Education President, DIC Entertainment Data Collection: In-depth Interviews Network Data Questionnaire Historical Records

  14. Educational Content Creators Entertainment Content Creators Content Programmers Toy Tie-In Companies Advertisers Governmental Bodies Advocacy Groups Philanthropic Organizations Educational Content Creators relationship to Entertainment Content Creators relationship to Content Programmers relationship to Toy Tie-In Companies relationship to Advertisers relationship to Governmental Bodies relationship to Advocacy Groups relationship to Philanthropic Organizations relationship to

  15. Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 1963-1967 Penetration of Cable 1983-1987 Children’s Television Act of 1990 1988-1992 Three-Hour Rule (Addendum to CTA in 1996) 1993-1997 Environmental Events in the History of the Children’s TV Community

  16. Network Evolution

  17. OR...

  18. Limitations: • Data Collection • One case study • Network Data Questionnaire • Macro-level Events • Data Analysis • Small networks • Need to use dynamic network analysis Limitations/Future Directions • Future Directions: • Further data collection (children’s media community and other communities) • More multilevel, emergent analysis