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Traps and Attractants for Monitoring Bed Bug Infestations. G. W. Bennett, C. Wang , G. McGraw, M. Abou El-Nour Department of Entomology, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN S. McKnight BioSensory, Inc. Putnam, CT. Why study bed bug traps and attractants?. Difficult to notice

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traps and attractants for monitoring bed bug infestations

Traps and Attractants for Monitoring Bed Bug Infestations

G. W. Bennett, C. Wang, G. McGraw, M. Abou El-Nour

Department of Entomology, Purdue University

West Lafayette, IN

S. McKnight

BioSensory, Inc. Putnam, CT

why study bed bug traps and attractants
Why study bed bug traps and attractants?
  • Difficult to notice
  • Save labor cost
  • Detect infestations early
  • Reduce insecticide use
tropisms of the bed bugs rivnay 1932
Tropisms of the bed bugs (Rivnay 1932)
  • Prefers rough surface
  • Heat: can detect 2oC difference
    • Nutritional status of bed bugs
  • Odour of perspiration: repel or attract.
  • Blood, muscle, subcutaneous tissue and washed skin: no effect.
marx 1955
Marx 1955
  • Can detect temperature differential of 1-20C over 3-cm.
  • Can perceive man from 1.5 m.
  • Can detect nest odor from 75 cm.
response of haematophagous insects to 1 octen 3 ol
Response of haematophagous insects to 1-Octen-3-ol
  • First isolated from cattle odours.
  • Olfactory attractant to some mosquito species and tsetse flies when combined with CO2.
response of mosquitoes to l lactic acid
Response of mosquitoes to L-lactic acid
  • L-lactic acid alone: slightly or non attractive.
  • L-lactic acid + CO2: synergistic effect.
response of triatoma infestans to co 2 and host odors barrozo and lazzari 2004 a
Response of Triatoma infestans to CO2 and host odors (Barrozo and Lazzari 2004 a)
  • CO2: > 300-400 ppm
  • L-lactic acid alone: no effect
  • L-lactic acid + CO2: synergistic effect: > 75-150 ppm of CO2.
  • Octenol: stimulating effect.
response of triatoma infestans to co 2 and host odors barrozo and lazzari 2004 b
Response of Triatoma infestans to CO2 and host odors (Barrozo and Lazzari 2004 b)
  • Propionic acid: no orientation
  • Butyric acid: no orientation
  • Valeric acid: no orientation
  • Propionic acid + Butyric acid + Valeric acid
  • L-lactic acid +
  • 1 + 2 + 3 + L-lactic acid + CO2: response similar to that induced by a live mouse.
experiment i
Experiment I
  • Objective: evaluate the attractiveness of chemical lure and heat on bed bugs.
  • Treatments:
    • Heat only (44 - 47oC)
    • Heat + octenol (24.5%)
    • Heat + octenol + lactic acid (?%)
experimental design
Experimental Design
  • A one bed-room apartment with 1,000 ~ 2,000 bed bugs.
  • Three traps were placed beside the bed.
  • The traps were operated from 12 am-6 am for 1-4 days. The trap locations rotated after each check.

Door to the living room

experiment ii
Experiment II
  • Lowered trap design
  • Treatments:
    • Control (no heat, no chemical)
    • Heat
    • Heat + Octenol
    • Heat + Octenol + lactic acid
    • Heat + Octenol + lactic acid + propionic acid + butyric acid + valeric acid (concentration?)
experimental design14
Experimental Design
  • 4 x 4 Latin square design
  • Each apartment had >1,000 bed bugs.
  • One pair of traps were placed in each apartment beside the bed.
  • The traps were operated from 12 am-5 am for 2 days. The traps rotated among the 4 apartments after each check.

With heat and/or chemical

Without heat or chemical

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Heat (44 - 47oC) significantly increased trap catches.
  • There is a trend that a mixed chemical lure is more effective than a simple lure (p = 0.056).
  • Pitfall traps with heat and chemical lures have potential to be useful tool for monitoring bed bug infestations and reducing bed bug numbers.
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Indianapolis Housing Agency
  • BioSensory, Inc.