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The Effect of Gearbox Architecture on Wind Turbine Enclosure Size. Charles D. Schultz, PE Beyta Gear Service Winfield, Illinois. What was the objective of this paper?. Demonstrate the “scaleability” of gear design Examine alternate designs for wind turbine gearboxes

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the effect of gearbox architecture on wind turbine enclosure size

The Effect of Gearbox Architecture on Wind Turbine Enclosure Size

Charles D. Schultz, PE

Beyta Gear Service

Winfield, Illinois

what was the objective of this paper
What was the objective of this paper?
  • Demonstrate the “scaleability” of gear design
  • Examine alternate designs for wind turbine gearboxes
  • Begin a discussion of how design decisions effect overall system size
slide3

Typical Wind Turbine

Complete Gear Set

“3PPH” arrangement

what was the scope of this work
What was the scope of this work?
  • Theoretical work only –not connected to any past, present, or future project
  • Design conditions are relevant but simplified
  • Work limited to gears only
design condition summary
Design Condition Summary
  • In place of a Miners’ Rule load spectrum a 1.5 application factor was used
  • 2mW nominal capacity
  • Gears rated for 85,000 hours of full load life [approximately 10 years of 24/7 operation]
  • 15 rpm rotor speed
  • 7 different output speeds
  • 4 different gear arrangements per output speed
key design decisions
Key Design Decisions
  • Pinion tooth counts
  • Number of planets
  • Allowable face width/pitch diameter ratio
  • No divided power path arrangements due to radial timing concerns
  • All external gearing is carburized, hardened, and ground
gear arrangements considered
Gear Arrangements Considered
  • All external gears
  • Multiple planetary stages
  • Single planetary stage with multiple external stages
design procedure used
Design Procedure Used
  • Establish set geometry at 1 NDP
  • 18 tooth minimum
  • 1.3 minimum Mp
  • 1.0 minimum Mf
  • 1.25 maximum face width/pinion pitch diameter ratio
  • Run ratings for 1 NDP gearsets
design procedure used9
Design Procedure Used
  • Calculate NDP needed to achieve required capacity
  • Draw cross section of gear train
  • Approximate size of related rotating parts
  • Calculate weights and volumes
  • Compare results for different designs
scaleability example
1 DP gear set

18 x 18 sun/planet

12° Helix

20° NDP

1.25 FW/D ratio

(3) planets

2.7 mesh factor

Durability limited

2372.47 hp x 2.7 = 6405.669 hp

(6405.669/4023 RDC)^.333 = 1.1677

Rating for 1.1677 NDP = 1494.42 x 2.7 = 4034.934 HP

4034.934/4023 = 1.003

.3% “error” is due to dynamic factor changing

Scaleability Example
effect of increasing number of planets
Effect of increasing number of planets
  • Figure 1 shows the relationship between the stage ratio and the maximum number of planets
  • Figure 2 shows the dramatic effect of increasing the number of planets
  • Load sharing becomes a concern as the number of planets is increased
results
Results
  • The planetary arrangements currently in use are a logical choice based upon minimum enclosed volume, lowest weight, and relative cost to manufacture
  • Other arrangements may have potential advantages in terms of serviceability and packaging
  • For total ratios of over 40:1 a two planetary stage/one helical stage arrangement gives the best results
  • Total gear ratio seems to have little effect on GEARBOX cost in the 60:1 to 120:1 ratio range
suggestions for further work
Suggestions for Further Work
  • How is generator size effected by output rpm?
  • How do “flex pin” arrangements effect the choice of number of planets and overall cost?
  • Can designs be developed to permit “up tower” rebuildability?
thank you
Thank You:
  • Noel Davis of Vela Gear Systems
  • Mark Haller of Haller Wind Consulting
  • Octave LaBath of Cincinnati Gear Consulting
  • Amy Lane of AGMA
  • Peer Review Team of AGMA