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The Directed Discourse Approach to Science Instruction. Bryan A. Brown, Ph.D. Stanford University Graduate School of Education. Overview. Pre-Assessment. Vernacular vs. Non-Vernacular. DDASI Video. Discussion of DDASI. Overview.

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the directed discourse approach to science instruction

The Directed Discourse Approach to Science Instruction

Bryan A. Brown, Ph.D.

Stanford University

Graduate School of Education

slide2

Overview

Pre-Assessment

Vernacular vs. Non-Vernacular

DDASI Video

Discussion of DDASI

overview
Overview
  • One of the primary challenges for students’ science learning involves the ability to acquire an understandings of science discourse.
  • Linguists suggest that all language contains 2 tiers of communication: (a) Primary Content Message, & (b) Subtext of Cultural Affiliation (Agar, 1997).
  • Thus students’ experiences with the language of science comes to represent cultural affiliation and disenchantment with science.
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • Engaging in these discourse practices is not neutral with respect to students’ identity.
  • Learning requires some appropriation of an identity commensurate with scientific language use.
  • Choices of discourse related to appropriating scientific knowledge within classroom contexts carry implications for how students and teachers perceive one another as well as themselves.
slide5

Overview

Pre-Assessment

Vernacular vs. Non-Vernacular

DDASI Video

Discussion of DDASI

pre assessment
Pre- Assessment
  • What types of language (including writing practices) are used in your science class?
  • Please describe any issues that you have encountered with students use of scientific language and their learning?
  • If there are any challenges in your instruction, explain how you manage them in you classroom?
slide7

Inquiry & Discourse Scaffolding

Pre-Assessment Questions for Every Activity:

Prior to instruction, teachers must introduce all activities by requiring their students to provide their understanding of the concepts to be addressed. This allows the teacher to note misconceptions and develop a discourse rich environment.

Post-Assessment Questions:

Upon completion of each unit, teachers must engage students in conversation about phenomenon. This allows the teacher to asses student progress and places students in the same position they will be in during the MEAP. They will be required to evaluate, assess, and review information.

Student Presentations:

This is perhaps the most underemphasized aspect of science instruction. The public requirement to communicate conceptual understanding mirrors the expectation of the MEAP examination. Students are required to review, evaluate, and express conceptual understandings.

slide8

Overview

Pre-Assessment

Vernacular vs. Non-Vernacular

DDASI Video

Discussion of DDASI

vernacular vs non vernacular language
Vernacular vs. Non-Vernacular Language

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vernacular vs non vernacular language1
Vernacular vs. Non-Vernacular Language

Non-Vernacular:

In our 4-3 hot package, Rick and Liz will fire, but Mike is man-up on the Z

Vernacular

When we blitz using our four linemen and three linebacker alignment, the left and right side linebackers will blitz the quarterback, but the middle linebacker will be in man to man coverage with the tight end.

slide12

Overview

Pre-Assessment

Vernacular vs. Non-Vernacular

DDASI Video

Discussion of DDASI

ddasi video
DDASI Video
  • In response to the principals of Vernacular and Non-Vernacular language and the belief that all languages begin as non-vernacular, a team a researchers developed the DDASI.
  • Pilot Study in Detroit, MI 2002
slide14

Overview

Pre-Assessment

Vernacular vs. Non-Vernacular

DDASI Video

Discussion of DDASI

slide15

D. D. A. S. I.

The Directed Discourse Approach to Science Instruction

Stage 1:Pre-Assessment Instruction

Stage 2: Content Construction

Stage 3:Introduce Discourse with explicit rules for language

Stage 4:Scaffolding opportunities for discourse.

slide16

D. D. A. S. I.

The Directed Discourse Approach to Discourse Instruction

Stage 1:Pre-Assessment Instruction

This stage of the lesson planning is designed with two purpose in mind: 1) To allow student to identify their understanding of the phenomenon being discussed. 2) Allow the teacher to understand what students know about the concept and what are the students’ wrong ideas about the content. If done in an environment where students are free to talk about the content in any fashion they like, this provides the foundation for every lesson.

Stage 2: Content Construction

Without providing students with detailed language and overbearing technical descriptions, in this stage the teacher can introduce the correct version of the content that was discussed in stage 1. The teacher can begin to ensure that the “Big idea” of the concept is understood, without using the detailed scientific language. (Manipulation of materials can occur at any either stage 1 or 2)

slide17

D. D. A. S. I.

The Directed Discourse Approach to Discourse Instruction

Stage 3:Introduce Discourse with explicit rules for language

In this stage we introduce students to the language of the content and require them through classroom talk, and written assignments to build these terms into their vocabulary by providing them opportunities to use the discourse. The teacher must make sure the rule for language use are clear at this point of your instruction.

-Stage 4:Scaffolding opportunities for discourse.

This final stage uses assessment activities to allow the student to write and explain the concept being discussed using the technical discourse of science. In this fourth and final phase students are asked to discuss the phenomenon individually (either writing or oral) using the technical terminology. These language-building activities are free from the teacher’s assistance, thus requiring the students to build their conceptual and discursive understanding.

discussion
Discussion
  • Open forum discussion….