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THE MODAL MODEL. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). rehearse. Sensory Information Store. Short Term Memory (STM). Long Term Memory (LTM). recode. retrieve. THE WORKING MEMORY MODEL Baddeley and Hitch, 1974. PHONOLOGICAL LOOP. VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD. Visuo-Spatial Store.

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the modal model
THE MODAL MODEL

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)

rehearse

Sensory

Information

Store

Short Term

Memory (STM)

Long Term

Memory (LTM)

recode

retrieve

the working memory model baddeley and hitch 1974
THE WORKING MEMORY MODELBaddeley and Hitch, 1974

PHONOLOGICAL LOOP

VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD

Visuo-Spatial Store

Central Executive

Phonological Store

Articulatory processes

Visuo-spatial processes

evidence for the phonological loop
Evidence for the Phonological Loop
  • Articulatory Suppression
  • Word Length Effect
  • Phonological Similarity Effect
articulatory suppression murray 1967
Articulatory Suppression(Murray, 1967)

Recall performance

Articulatory suppression

No secondary task

word length effect baddeley et al 1975
Word Length Effect(Baddeley et al., 1975)

Recall performance

Short Words ie., fit, cat, put

Long Words ie., university, escalator

ie., ticket, jogger

ie., Friday, motion

phonological similarity effect conrad hull 1964
Phonological Similarity Effect(Conrad & Hull, 1964)

Recall performance

Phonologically distinct lists ie., TRQKO

Phonologically similar lists ie., TVBCD

summary of evidence
Summary of Evidence
  • Articulatory Suppression
  • - suggests the importance of rehearsal as the active process
  • Word Length Effect
  • suggests the importance of rehearsal for maintaining phonological information in STM
  • Phonological Similarity Effect
  • suggests that information held in the phonological store fades and becomes confused with other similar information
interaction of these effects
Interaction of these effects

Recall performance

1 task

2 tasks

?

Short words

Long words

Word Length

summary of evidence9
Summary of Evidence
  • Articulatory Suppression
  • - suggests the importance of rehearsal as the active process
  • Word Length Effect
  • suggests the importance of rehearsal for maintaining phonological information in STM
  • Phonological Similarity Effect
  • suggests that information held in the phonological store fades and becomes confused with other similar information
  • The interaction of these effects
  • - suggests that rehearsal is the active processing system that serves the passive phonological store, and that together, these two components make up the PHONOLOGICAL LOOP.
so what the importance of the phonological loop
So What?The Importance of the Phonological Loop
  • PATIENT ‘PV’:
    • Acquisition of new vocabulary
    • Acquisition of a second language
    • Language comprehension