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Russia Pre-1917- Revolution. History 12 Ms Leslie. Very very beginning. Russia has been around since the 10th century Mostly made up of Ethnic Slavs who went north escaping the Turkish empire These migrating Slavs clashed with Mongolians and Tartars.

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russia pre 1917 revolution

RussiaPre-1917- Revolution

History 12

Ms Leslie

very very beginning
Very very beginning
  • Russia has been around since the 10th century
  • Mostly made up of Ethnic Slavs who went north escaping the Turkish empire
  • These migrating Slavs clashed with Mongolians and Tartars
slide3

15th century - Grand Duchy of Moscow established = creation of a strong Tsardom or Czardom

  • The first Tsars were the likes of Ivan the terrible and Ivan the Great
  • Took a lot of territory from the Tartars, Kazans and Crimeans
imperial russia 17 19th century
Imperial Russia17-19th Century
  • A great time for Russia
  • Grew culturally and territorially
  • Rulers = Peter the great and Catherine the Great
slide5
The people were mostly illiterate farmers
  • Feudal system
  • Czar Alexander II abolished slavery in 1861
  • Factories had horrid working conditions
  • Alex II assassinated in 1881 and replaced by this son
alexander iii 1881 1894
Alexander III 1881-1894
  • Authorities shifted attention from the failings of the government by creating scapegoats and encouraging pogroms
  • Pogroms -
slide7
Was physically intimidating - a body builder to make up for his 5’6” height
  • Died of kidney failure from trauma from a train accident
nicolas ii
Nicolas II
  • Started his reign in 1894
  • Autocratic and ineffective
  • Romanov family very wealthy
  • Population of 165 million
  • Secret police (OKHRANA)
  • Censorship of the press
  • Czar’s word was law
slide9
Despite this, the people loved Nicolas II
  • Believed he was appointed by God
  • Kept pictures of him in their homes and worshipped him
  • Related to heads of Greece, UK, Denmark, Germany
what was nicholas ii like
What was Nicholas II like?
  • Not very smart
  • Easily manipulated by his advisors
  • Relied on
  • His son,
  • His allowed Rasputin to gain dangerous control of the government.
population of the 1910 s
Population of the 1910’s
  • 1910-
  • 1914 -
  • Only 40%
  • 80%
  • Life expectancy = 40 years
  • Well educated middle class - had the most books per capital in 1913
slide12
Most lived on communal farms called Obschina or Mir.
  • The Obschina organized taxes and allotted land to households
  • Peasants could not
  • Punishment =
  • Agricultural reforms had not caught on eg crop rotation
famine
famine
  • Lots of famines
  • 1891 - famine +cholera + typhus = 400,000 dead
  • 1890 - 64% of conscripts declared unfit to serve
revolutionary movement
Revolutionary movement
  • Nihilists –
  • Populists –
  • Marxists -
  • Liberals -
problems with industrialization
Problems with Industrialization
  • Far behind rest of Europe
  • Because of late start industry was modern and they lacked skilled workers
  • Relied heavily of foreign loans and taxes for growth
  • France owned 2/3rd
  • Germany owned
  • Britain owned
industry
Industry
  • 5th
  • Average hard labour work day
  • Child labour common. Start age 4
  • Kids worked in cotton mills. Injuries common, rickets, cotton lung
  • Unions Banned
labour problems
Labour Problems
  • Industrial workers small in number
  • Exploited
  • Demanded
  • Started to demand
peasant problem
Peasant Problem
  • 3/4 of the population
  • Although no longer serfs, still had a separate administration and courts
  • Illiterate and superstitious
  • Excessively taxed - main source of tsarist revenue.
slide20
1896 the people had enough and rioted in St Petersburg
  • 1902 street demonstrations
  • 1901-1907 arson in rural areas common
  • 1904 a social revolutionary assassinated the minister of the interior
slide22
5.

6. Liberals organized the Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadet). Wanted democratic reform

7.

slide23
Bolsheviks (Majority) –
  • Mensheviks (minority) -
1905 rebellion revolution
1905 Rebellion/Revolution
  • Jan 22/Jan 9
  • Workers under the leadership of Father Gapon marched on the Winter Palace
  • Wanted:
result
Result
  • Showed tsar’s incompetence
  • Tsarist supporters changed their minds
  • creation of the ‘Shildlovski Commission’
oct 1905
Oct 1905
  • Oct 20-30 –
  • First soviet formed in St Petersburg
  • Soviet (council) =
slide28
The Tsar responded with the October Manifesto promising:
  • Extremists not appeased, but moderates happy and a full revolution didn’t happen
the duma
The Duma

Russian Parliament

long term impact 1905
Long term impact 1905
  • Tsar used him powers to arrest and harrass opposition
  • 1906-07, 4,400 deaths due to terrorism
  • Catch 22 -
marxism
Marxism
  • Came to Russia in the 1880s
  • Lenin knew revolution would happen in Russia first as it was the weakest capitalist state (contrary to Marxism)
  • 1903 the Russian Marxist movement split in two
bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
  • Professional revolutionaries
  • Majority
mensheviks
Mensheviks
  • Moderate
  • Feared Lenin would become a dictator
  • Minority
wwi and the revolutionary movement
WWI and the revolutionary movement
  • Bolsheviks opposed the war from the start
  • Lenin exiled in Zurich, Switz.
  • Most Bolsheviks banished to Siberia
home front
Home front
  • War meant more food shortages
  • 1914
  • 1915
  • This left the Tsarina in charge - she let Rasputin make decisions…
war stats
War stats
  • 15.5 million man army
  • 1.65 million died
  • 3.85 million wounded
  • 2.41 million POWs
  • 1917 1.5 million deserted
  • Lack of medical attention
  • Not enough equipment for soldiers. 1 in 3 didn’t have a gun
beginning of the collapse
Beginning of the collapse
  • 1917-
  • Little transportation
  • February -
  • Police joined rioters and a general strike formed
slide38
Army called in and they shot the rioters
  • Fear of civil war causes Czar to resign and the provisional government is formed
  • But more on all that later
  • The end