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Introduction to Microbiology. Microbiology. Study of microscopic (living ) things E.g. viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, fungi. History of Microbiology. 1590 – First compound light microscope Zacharias Janssen . History. 1676 –first observation of bacteria “animalcules”

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microbiology
Microbiology
  • Study of microscopic (living ) things
  • E.g.

viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, fungi

history of microbiology
History of Microbiology
  • 1590 – First compound light microscope Zacharias Janssen
history
History
  • 1676 –first observation of bacteria “animalcules”

Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

history1
History
  • 1796 – First vaccine (smallpox)

Edward Jenner

history2
History
  • 1857 – Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur
history3
History
  • 1867 Antiseptic Surgery

Joseph Lister

history4
History
  • 1884 Koch’s Postulates of Disease Transmission

Robert Koch

history5
History
  • 1885 - Vaccine against Rabies

Louis Pasteur

history6
History
  • 1929 Discovery of Penicillin

(first antibiotic)

Alexander Fleming

history7
History
  • 1938 – First Electron Microscope
  • The electron microscope is capable of magnifying biological specimens up to one million times. These computer enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2. herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are magnified, respectively, 150,000, 150,000 and 90,000 times.
history8
History

1953 Structure of DNA Revealed

Watson & Crick

history9
History

1954 Polio Vaccine

Jonas Salk

recent history
Recent History
  • Genetic engineering
  • Cloning
  • Human Genome Project
  • Biotechnology
  • Who knows what is next?
sizes of microbes
Sizes of Microbes
  • Virus - 10 →1000 nanometers *
  • Bacteria - 0.1 → 5 micrometers **

(Human eye ) can see .1 mm (1 x 10 -3 m)

* One billionth or 1 x 10 -9 m

** One millionth or 1 x 10 -6 m

tools of microbiology
Tools of Microbiology
  • Compound light Microscope

- live specimens

- 1,000 mag. or less

  • Electron Microscope

- non-living specimens

- > 1,000 X mag.

  • Incubator – keep microbes warm for growth
techniques of microbiology
Techniques of Microbiology
  • Staining – to better see structures
  • Microbial Culture - growing the wee

beasties

  • Container for microbe culture

- usually Petri dish

  • Culture media

- Food for the microbes

- E.g. Agar – (from red algae)

- Others such as nutrient broths

pure culture techniques
Pure Culture Techniques
  • Inoculation
  • Isolation
  • Identification