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Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) An Activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) Today (briefly): • The inception of ITCT • Preliminary findings (the scientific basis of ITCT) • The principle science questions

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT)

An Activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC)

Today (briefly):

• The inception of ITCT

• Preliminary findings (the scientific basis of ITCT)

• The principle science questions

• The strategy and tools

• Outline of planned research

(More detailed presentations at this meeting)

slide2

Inception of ITCT

The International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)project was established (1988)

to investigate the impact of chemistry on global climate change. (ozone and aerosols)

Tokyo Workshop (March 16-17, 2000, Frontier Research Systems for Global Change).

Steering committee formed; white paper accepted by IGAC; ITCT steering committee

met (June 6 -7) and outlined a science plan.

ITCT was formulated with the recognition that climate change had regional as well as global dimensions and ozone and aerosols had air quality, as well as, climate change implications.

slide3

The Northern Hemisphere

Focus of ITCT:

Focus on shorter-lived pollutants; ozone, aerosols.

Much of the anthropogenic sources are in the Northern Hemisphere.

For short-lived species, the ITCZ represents a line of demarcation that separates the world into two unique chemical zones; the Northern, where most of the land is, and the Southern, which is dominated by water.

Since compounds are short-lived, most of the impact

is in the Northern Hemisphere.

The public concern with the chemical aspects of these species is strongly involved with air-quality (human and ecosystem impacts as opposed to climate). ITCT will try to address both regional climate and air-quality concerns.

White papers available.

slide4

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

The Scientific Basis of ITCT from a Transatlantic Perspective

(c.f., Parrish and Jacob this afternoon)

slide5

Large Amounts of Ozone Are

Transported to the Remote

Troposphere

There is a strong seasonal

variation in the anthropogenic

influence on the tropospheric

O3 budget.

Ozone mixing ratio (ppbv)

(Parrish et al.)

slide6

Layers provide an effective

mechanism for the transport of

continental pollution to mid and

upper troposphere of the North

Atlantic (Angevine et al.).

Transport enhanced by fronts.

Layers can be dominated by anthropogenic pollution or by

stratospheric O3 (c.f., Stohl et al.).

Identification of controlling

meteorology

(Topics described in posters: Cooper, McCaffery and McKeen.)

slide7

NOx controls photochemical O3

formation over the North Atlantic

Emissions from forest fires influence

air-quality on a hemispheric scale.

CO (Wotawa and Trainer)

CO (ppbv)

O3, NOx (McKeen et al.)

? Aerosols

Year

(Parrish)

slide8

FUTURE PLANS

(Science Questions, Approach, Plans ITCT from a Transatlantic Perspective)

slide9

THE PRINCIPAL SCIENCE QUESTIONS

What are the export fluxes of oxidants,

aerosols, and their precursors from

the Northern Hemisphere continents to the global atmosphere?

What is the ultimate fate of these

substances exported to the global

atmosphere?

What are the impacts of intercontinental transport in the Northern Hemisphere on

surface air quality?

What are the impacts of changing emissions on regional and global atmospheric

chemistry, composition, and climate?

What are the impacts of climate variability on regional and global atmospheric chemistry and composition?

slide10

In order to quantify intercontinental transport and chemical transformation observations and models must be integrated.

Source/sink

inventories

Assimilated

meteorological

data

Chemical

and aerosol

processes

INTERCONTINENTAL TRANSPORT:

CONCENTRATIONS AND FLUXES

Agreement with

reasonable uncertainty

THE STRATEGY AND TOOLS

SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

Global and continuous but

few species, low resolution

Question - HOW

3-D CHEMICAL

TRACER MODELS

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS

high resolution but spatially limited

AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS

High resolution, targeted flights

provide critical snapshots

for model testing

slide11

Transpacific

2001 - 2002: APARE (ACE and TRACE) interpretation.

2002 - :North American inflow experiment, scooping study and interpretation. Planning further inflow out flow experiments.

  • Transatlantic
  • 1997 - 2001: NARE interpretation.
  • 2001 - 2003: Development of Azores sampling site to add to

measurements at other locations.

3. 2002 - : Planning future inflow/outflow experiments.

Trans-Eurasian

  • Establishment of Chinese and Russian sites and/or platforms.
  • Planning European outflow and Asian inflow experiments.

Exchange with Polar and Tropical Regions

  • Mid-latitude industrial emissions.
  • Boreal, tropical biomass burning.

OUTLINE OF PLANNED RESEARCH