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Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier w Butler w Lewis . Chapter 5 Tissues. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5.1: Introduction. Similar cells with a common function are called tissues .

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hole s human anatomy and physiology twelfth edition shier w butler w lewis

Hole’s Human Anatomyand PhysiologyTwelfth EditionShier w Butler w Lewis

Chapter

5

Tissues

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

5 1 introduction
5.1: Introduction
  • Similar cells with a common function are called tissues.
  • The study of tissues is called histology.
  • There are four (4) primary or major tissue types:
  • Epithelial Tissue
  • Connective Tissue
  • Muscle Tissue
  • Nervous Tissue
intercellular junctions
Intercellular Junctions

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

  • Tight junctions
    • Close space between cells
    • Located among cells that form linings

Cell membrane

Tight junction

Cell membrane

  • Desmosomes
    • Form “spot welds” between cells
    • Located among outer skin cells

Desmosome

  • Gap junctions
    • Tubular channels between cells
    • Located in cardiac muscle cells

Cell membrane

Gap junction

5 2 epithelial tissue
5.2: Epithelial Tissue
  • General characteristics:
  • Cover organs and the body
  • Line body cavities
  • Line hollow organs
  • Have a free surface
  • Have a basement membrane
  • Are avascular
  • Cells readily divide
  • Cells tightly packed
  • Cells often have desmosomes
  • Function in protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion
  • Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers
epithelial tissue
Epithelial Tissue
  • Simple squamous:
    • Single layer of flat cells
    • Substances pass easily through
    • Line air sacs
    • Line blood vessels
    • Line lymphatic vessels
  • Simple cuboidal:
    • Single layer of cube-shaped cells
    • Line kidney tubules
    • Cover ovaries
    • Line ducts of some glands

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Free surface

of tissue

Lumen

Nucleus

Simple

squamous

epithelium

Basement

membrane

Basement

Free surface

of tissue

Simple

cuboidal

epithelium

Nucleus

Connective

tissue

Connective

tissue

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

b,d: © Ed Reschke

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

epithelial tissue6
Epithelial Tissue
  • Simple columnar:
    • Single layer of elongated cells
    • Nuclei usually near the basement
    • membrane, at same level
    • Sometimes possess cilia
    • Sometimes possess microvilli
    • Often have goblet cells
    • Line uterus, stomach, intestines
  • Pseudostratified columnar:
    • Single layer of elongated cells
    • Nuclei at two or more levels
    • Appears layered
    • Often have cilia
    • Often have goblet cells
    • Line respiratory passageways

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cilia

(free surface

of tissue)

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cytoplasm

Mucus

Goblet cell

Nucleus

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Basement

membrane

Microvilli

(free surface

of tissue)

Connective

tissue

Goblet cell

(a)

(b)

Basement

membrane

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

Connective

tissue

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer.

epithelial tissue7
Epithelial Tissue
  • Stratified squamous:
    • Many cell layers
    • Top cells are flat
    • Can accumulate keratin
    • Outer layer of skin
    • Line oral cavity, vagina, and anal canal
  • Stratified cuboidal:
    • 2-3 layers
    • Cube-shaped cells
    • Line ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and the pancreas

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Free surface

of tissue

Stratified

cuboidal

epithelium

Nucleus

Squamous

cells

Lumen

Free surface

of tissue

Basement

membrane

Connective

tissue

(a)

(b)

Layer of

dividing

cells

Basement

membrane

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer.

Connective

tissue

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

epithelial tissue8
Epithelial Tissue
  • Transitional:
    • Many cell layers
    • Cube-shaped and elongated cells – can stretch
    • Line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra
  • Stratified columnar:
    • Top layer of elongated cells
    • Cube-shaped cells in deeper layers
    • Line part of male urethra and part of pharynx

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Free surface

of tissue

Unstretched

transitional

epithelium

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Lumen

Basement

membrane

Free surface

of tissue

Underlying

connective tissue

Stratified

columnar

epithelium

(a)

(b)

Basement

membrane

Free surface

of tissue

Connective

tissue

Stretched

transitional

epithelium

(a)

(b)

Basement

membrane

Underlying

connective tissue

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

(c)

(d)

b,d: © Ed Reschke

glandular epithelium
Glandular Epithelium
  • Composed of cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances
  • There are two (2) types:
    • Endocrineglands are ductless (key word: hormone)
    • Exocrineglands have ducts
  • Unicellularexocrine gland:
    • Composed of one cell
    • Goblet cell
  • Multicellularexocrine gland:
    • Composed of many cells
    • Sweat glands, salivary glands, etc.
    • Simple and compound
structural types of exocrine glands
Structural Types of Exocrine Glands

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Tissue surface

Duct

Secretory portion

Simple tubular

Simple coiled

tubular

Simple branched

tubular

Simple branched

alveolar

Compound tubular

Compound alveolar

types of glandular secretions
Types of Glandular Secretions
  • Merocrine Glands
    • Fluid product
    • Salivary glands
    • Pancreas
    • Sweat glands (also
    • called Eccrine)
  • Apocrine Glands
    • Cellular product
    • Portions of cells
    • Mammary glands
    • Ceruminous glands
  • Holocrine Glands
    • Secretory products
    • Whole cells
    • Sebaceous glands

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Pinched off

portion of cell

(secretion)

Disintegrating cell

and its contents

(secretion)

Intact

cell

Secretion

New cell

forming by

mitosis and

cytokinesis

(a) Merocrine gland

(b) Apocrine gland

(c) Holocrine gland

5 3 connective tissues
5.3: Connective Tissues
  • General characteristics:
  • Most abundant tissue type
  • Many functions:
    • Bind structures
    • Provide support and protection
    • Serve as frameworks
    • Fill spaces
    • Store fat
    • Produce blood cells
    • Protect against infections
    • Help repair tissue damage
  • Have a matrix
  • Have varying degrees of vascularity
  • Have cells that usually divide
connective tissue major cell types present
Connective Tissue Major Cell Types Present
  • Macrophages
    • Wandering cell
    • Phagocytic
    • Important in injury or infection
  • Fibroblasts
    • Fixed cell
    • Most common cell
    • Large, star-shaped
    • Produce fibers
  • Mast cells
    • Fixed cell
    • Release heparin
    • Release histamine
connective tissue fiber types present
Connective Tissue Fiber Types Present
  • Collagenous fibers
    • Thick
    • Composed of collagen
    • Great tensile strength
    • Abundant in dense CT
    • Hold structures together
    • Tendons, ligaments
  • Elastic fibers
    • Bundles of microfibrils embedded in elastin
    • Fibers branch
    • Elastic (stretchy)
    • Vocal cords, air passages
  • Reticular fibers
    • Very thin collagenous fibers
    • Highly branched
    • Form supportive networks
connective tissues
Connective Tissues
  • Connective Tissue Proper:
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Adipose tissue
    • Reticular connective tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Elastic connective tissue
  • Specialized Connective Tissue:
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • Blood
connective tissue types
Connective Tissue Types
  • Loose Connective Tissue
    • Mainly fibroblasts
    • Fluid to gel-like matrix
    • Collagenous fibers
    • Elastic fibers
    • Bind skin to structures
    • Beneath most epithelia
    • Blood vessels nourish nearby epithelial cells
    • Between muscles
  • Adipose Tissue
    • Adipocytes
    • Cushions
    • Insulates
    • Stores fat
    • Beneath skin
    • Behind eyeballs
    • Around kidneys and heart

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cytsol

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Fat droplet

Cell

membrane

Collagenous

fiber

Fibroblast

Nucleus

(a)

(b)

Ground

substance

Elastic

fiber

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

connective tissue types17
Connective Tissue Types
  • Reticular Connective Tissue
    • Composed of reticular fibers
    • Supports internal organ walls
    • Walls of liver, spleen, lymphatic organs
  • Dense Connective Tissue
    • Packed collagenous fibers
    • Elastic fibers
    • Few fibroblasts
    • Bind body parts together
    • Tendons, ligaments, dermis
    • Poor blood supply

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Fibroblasts

Collagenous

fibers

Collagenous

fibers

White blood

cell

(a)

(b)

Fibroblast

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

connective tissue types18
Connective Tissue Types
  • Elastic Connective Tissue
    • Abundant in elastic fibers
    • Some collagenous fibers
    • Fibroblasts
    • Attachments between bones
    • Walls of large arteries, airways, heart
  • Bone (Osseous Tissue)
    • Solid matrix
    • Supports
    • Protects
    • Forms blood cells
    • Attachment for muscles
    • Skeleton
    • Osteocytes in lacunae

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Collagenous

fibers

Osteon

Lamella

Fibroblast

Centralcanal

Elastic fibers

Osteocytein lacuna

(a)

(b)

Canaliculi

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

Osteocyte

Nucleus

21

Cell process incanaliculus

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

connective tissue types19
Connective Tissue Types
  • Hyaline cartilage
    • Most abundant
    • Ends of bones
    • Nose, respiratory passages
    • Embryonic skeleton
  • Cartilage
    • Rigid matrix
    • Chondrocytes in lacunae
    • Poor blood supply
    • Three (3) types:
      • Hyaline Cartilage
      • Elastic Cartilage
      • Fibrocartilage
  • Elastic cartilage
    • Flexible
    • External ear, larynx
  • Fibrocartilage
    • Very tough
    • Shock absorber
    • Intervertebral discs
    • Pads of knee and pelvic girdle
connective tissue types20
Connective Tissue Types

Three (3) types of cartilage:

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Elastic fibers

Nucleus

Nucleus

Lacuna

Lacuna

Chondrocyte

Chondrocyte

Extracellular

matrix

Extracellular

matrix

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

Hyaline Cartilage

Elastic Cartilage

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Lacuna

Chondrocyte

Nucleus

Collagenous

fiber

Extracellular

matrix

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

Fibrocartilage

connective tissue types21
Connective Tissue Types
  • Blood
    • Fluid matrix called plasma
    • Red blood cells
    • White blood cells
    • Platelets
    • Transports
    • Defends against infection
    • Involved in clotting
    • Throughout body in blood vessels
    • Heart

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

White blood

cell

Red blood

cells

Plasma

(extracellular

matrix of blood)

Platelets

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

5 4 types of membranes
5.4: Types of Membranes
  • There are four (4) types of epithelial membranes:
  • 1. Serous Membranes
    • Line body cavities that do not open to the outside
    • Reduce friction
    • Inner lining of thorax and abdomen
    • Cover organs of thorax and abdomen
    • Secrete serous fluid
  • 2. Mucous Membranes
    • Line tubes and organs that open to outside world
    • Lining of mouth, nose, throat, etc.
    • Secrete mucus
  • 3. Cutaneous Membranes
    • Covers body
    • Skin
  • 4. Synovial Membranes
    • Composed entirely of connective tissue
    • Lines joints
5 5 muscle tissues
5.5: Muscle Tissues
  • Skeletal muscle
    • Attached to bones
    • Striated
    • Voluntary
  • General characteristics:
    • Muscle cells also called muscle fibers
    • Contractile
    • Three (3) types:
      • Skeletal muscle
      • Smooth muscle
      • Cardiac muscle
  • Smooth muscle
    • Walls of organs
    • Skin
    • Walls of blood vessels
    • Involuntary
    • Non-striated
  • Cardiac muscle
    • Heart wall
    • Involuntary
    • Striated
    • Intercalated discs
muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Striations

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Nuclei

Portion of a

muscle fiber

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

Skeletal Muscle

Smooth Muscle

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Striations

Nucleus

Intercalated

disc

(a)

(b)

b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

Cardiac Muscle

5 6 nervous tissue
5.6: Nervous Tissue
  • Found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
  • Functional cells are neurons

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cellular

process

  • Neuroglial cells support and
  • bind nervous tissue components

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Cell

membrane

Neuroglial

cells

(a)

(b)

  • Sensory reception

b: © Ed Reschke.

  • Conduction of nerve impulses
slide26

Important Points in Chapter 5:Outcomes to be Assessed

5.1: Introduction

  • Describe a tissue, and explain the intercellular junctions found in tissues.
  • List the four major tissue types in the body.

5.2: Epithelial Tissues

  • Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue.
  • Name the types of epithelium and identify and organ in which each is found.
  • Explain how glands are classified.

5.3: Connective Tissues

  • Describe the general characteristics of connective tissue.
  • Compare and contrast the cellular components, structures, fibers, and extracellular matrix (where applicable) in each type of connective tissue.
slide27

Important Points in Chapter 5:Outcomes to be Assessed

  • Describe the major functions of each type of connective tissue.

5.4: Types of Membranes

  • Describe and locate each of the four types of membranes.

5.5: Muscle Tissues

  • Distinguish among the three types of muscle tissue.

5.6: Nervous Tissues

  • Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue.