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DNA Structure and Replication Chapter 14 (Chromatin in Chapter 10) Topics you are not responsible for: Section 14.5: eukaryote replication Section (p 268-269) on ‘replisomes’ Be able to answer questions: Self-test #s 1 – 15 Challenge Question #1 3 MolnQuiry – Nucleic acids

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

DNA Structure

and Replication

Chapter 14

(Chromatin in Chapter 10)

Topics you are not responsible for:

Section 14.5: eukaryote replication

Section (p 268-269) on ‘replisomes’

Be able to answer questions:

Self-test #s 1 – 15

Challenge Question #1 3

MolnQuiry – Nucleic acids

DNA Structure and Replication

slide2

History of the discovery of the genetic material - 1?

Bacteriophages infect Cells with DNA alone

Alfred Hershey

Martha Chase

experiments -- 1928

-- radiolabled DNA

and protein

HC-Experiment

DNA Structure and Replication

slide3

What is the structure of

  • eukaryotic chromatin?
  • (from chapter 10)
  • Shape
  • Structure of chromatin
  • Nucleosomes
  • Functional areas
    • Centromeres
    • Telomeres
  • Replication

Model

supercoiling

DNA Structure and Replication

slide4

History of the discovery of the genetic material - 2?

P.A. Levene showed DNA is

a polymer of nucleotides

Erwin Chargaff showed DNA

composition differs among organisms

DNA Structure and Replication

slide5

What is the structure

of a DNA strand?

Nucleotides

Phosphodiester linkages

Sugar-Phosphate Bone

3’ to 5’ orientation

Models

DNA Structure and Replication

slide6

History of the discovery of the genetic material - 3?

J. Watson, F. Crick, R. Franklin and M. Wilkins

Determined the 3-D structure

What did Franklin and Wilkins contribute?

Crystalography

What did Watson and Crick Contribute?

-- Double helix

-- Antiparallel orientation

-- Base pairing

DNA Structure and Replication

slide7

What is the structure

of the DNA double helix?

Complimentary base pairing

-- base pairs are

hydrogen bonded

Antiparallel orientation

Major and minor grooves

Models

Question

DNA Structure and Replication

slide8

How does DNA replicate -1?

Semiconservative replication

The M. Meselson and

F Stahl experiment

MS-Experiment

DNA Structure and Replication

slide9

How does DNA replicate -2?

The need for RNA priming

--”RNA Primase”

Adding nucleotides

-- “DNA Polymerase”

5’ to 3’ orientation

Nucleotide

Polymerization

Question

DNA Structure and Replication

slide10

How does DNA replicate -3?

Origins of Replication

Replication ‘forks’

Replisomes

DNA gyrase

DNA Structure and Replication

slide11

How does DNA replicate - 4?

New strand 5 ‘  3’ orientation

Leading & lagging strands

DNA Helicase

SS Binding protein

RNA Primase

DNA Polymerase III

DNA Polymerase I

Ligase

Time

DNA

Replication I

DNA

Replication II

DNA Structure and Replication

slide12

How is genetic information encoded in DNA?

Base sequence

Organization into ‘genes’

How is genetic information used?

“Transcription”

of code from DNA to RNA

“Translation”

of code from RNA into A.A. sequence

Question

DNA Structure and Replication

slide13

Sickle-cell anemia mutation

What are mutations?

-- see section chapter 20 section 20.2

Changes to the base sequence

Some examples

“Point Mutations”

Base substitution

Base deletion

Base chemical change

“Sequence mutations”

Sequence inversions

Triplet expansion

“Chromosomal aberrations”

Deletions

Duplications

Breakages

Triplet expansion

DNA Structure and Replication

slide14

How is DNA damage repaired?

DNA polymerase “proofreading”

Mutation detection

Excision repair (via endonuclease)

Other repair enzymes

photolyase thymine dimers

Proofreading

Excision Repair

DNA Structure and Replication

slide15

Acknowledgements and Sources

DNA replication animations

John L.Giannini;Biology Department, St.Olaf College

http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/biological%20anamations.html

Hershey Chase experiment animation

http://nortonbooks.com/college/biology/animations/ch12a02.htm

DNA replication:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120076/micro04.swf

Trinucleotide repeat animation

Howard Hughes Medical Institute

http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/cancer/animations.html

DNA Structure and Replication