DILEMMATIC SPACE . Because collective purposes and values are always contested Because human beings have a fundamental ambivalence about authority and government Because policy makers pass irresolvable conflicts down to front-line staff . CONTRADICATIONS OF GOVERNANCE.
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Ethical action involves risk and therefore anxiety
In choosing A I have to reject B
Ethical action therefore involves guilt (letting down B) and/or loss (because I could not pursue the rejected alternative)TYPE 1 DILEMMAS
the capacity to contain uncertainty, ambiguity and complexity without resort to simplistic splitting into good/bad, black/white, us/them, etc.· the capacity for self-authorisation, that is, the capacity to find the courage to act in situations where there is no obvious right thing to do.· the capacity for reflexivity, that is, to take oneself as an object of inquiry and curiosity and hence to be able to suspend belief about oneself; all this as a way of sustaining a critical approach to oneself, one’s values and beliefs, one’s strengths and weaknesses, the nature of one’s power and authority, and so on.· the capacity to contain emotions such as anger, resentment, hope and cynicism without suppressing them and hence to be both passionate and thoughtful.