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    1. Copyright Tracy Mitrano Director of IT Policy and Computer Policy and Law Programs Cornell University

    2. Agenda History of Copyright in Anglo-American Law Copyright in American Higher Education Peer to peer infringement Course management and e-Reserves Intellectual property agreements The Impact of Copyright Law on the Future of American Higher Education

    3. The Printing Press and the Book From monasteries to movable type Printing press (western) 1436/7 Critical component of Protestant Reformation Rise of literacy and individual interpretation of the Bible (And if we believe WeberCapitalism) Query: now that it is invented, how and who is going to control it? Stationers Company 1557 Absolute monarchy of Tutor reign and monopoly control De facto copyright law and the foundation of exclusive rights but neither natural nor property Publishers as the arm of the crown

    4. Anglo-American Copyright Law Statute of Anne 1709 For authors first, not publishers Following the political economic trends of modern individualism and capitalism Fourteen years of protection, renewable for another fourteen Stationers rights for 21 years to publish Limits introduced concept of public domain and thus: Aided democracy by providing information for informed, deliberative citizenry Balance interests of incentive for authors, rights for publishers and needs of public

    5. Anglo-American Copyright Law Constitutional Convention Washington: access to information required to maintain an informed citizenry as bulwark against tyranny (i.e. public domain) Jefferson: fear of monopolies caused him to winnow authors/publishers protection (i.e. no exclusive rights, and very limited years) Madison: copyright not property, but policy, balancing incentive with learning, progress and innovation. Article I, section 8: Congress shall have the power to promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.

    6. Copyright Law of 1790 Exclusive right From Stationers Still with us Fourteen years, renewable once From Statute of Anne Now for individual 70 years plus life of author Registration required Policy, not property Not now, except for damages But nota bene the scope: books, maps Specific Not now, general: original work in a tangible medium

    7. Legislative History First copyright law: Copyright Act of 1790 Major revisions: 1831 1870 1909 1976 1976 is the current law, and each development of the law represents an expansion of scope and terms.

    8. Why Is Copyright Law Out of Balance? Scope. Historically content more rigidly defined Currently: original work fixed in a tangible medium. Registration required Not now, except for damages Originally copyright law encompassed a smaller class of material, maps. etc.. Almost ubiquitous Especially in digital form and the functionality of personal computer and network systems.

    9. Why Is Copyright Law Out of Balance? Terms. Originally 14 years (renew once), limited definition, maps, etc. 1909 Act, 14 years plus two renewals, for total of 56. 1976 provided for 50 years plus life individual and 95 years for a company. 1998 Bono Amendment added 20 more years and suggests that copyright protection be extended in perpetuity.

    10. Why Is Copyright Such a Big Deal? Copyright is the core battle for control of the Internet. Imbalance with social norms, business models, technology and law. Internet placed the expansion of copyright law in a meaningful light for society at large Digitization Personal computers Networking services Unusual positioning of academia at the precipice of content creators and users.

    11. Core of 1976 Copyright Law Original work fixed in a tangible medium No copying, distributing or derivative works Moral rights Important Exceptions Fair Use Character Nature Amount Market Effect First Sale Doctrine (libraries) Compulsory licenses

    12. Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998 Amended 1976 Copyright Act by including digital material Process Section 512 Notice and Take Down Conduit theory Safe Harbor for Higher Education Register with Library of Congress No knowledge Terminate Account of Repeat Offenders Substance Anti-circumvention provisions Disallow tampering with encryption systems designed to prevent copying No reverse engineering Research provision very narrow, may still hamper academic research Universal v. Reimedres Edward Felten, Princeton Coupled with the Copyright Term Extension Act

    13. DMCA and Higher Education Combination of factors: Higher education lead the development of Internet communications Big pipes File share program technology Fastest feed Automatic sharing Demographic population Youth, entertainment and personal identity Inflated cost of CDs v. few resources

    14. Cornell Comply As a conduit, no duty; as a matter of policy: Block immediately upon notice Letter to student Cease and desist If intentional, refer to Judicial Administration for discipline Security compromise Counter Notice Hosted on our computers: Safe harbor, DMCA registration with Library of Congress

    15. Cornell Educate IT Policy tutorial Annual Notice DMCA as well as institutional response to subpoena University Computer Policy and Law Program Information technology ethics education

    16. Cornell No monitoring for Content University Policy 5.9, Privacy of the Network Cornell University as a practice does not monitor or restrict the content of material transmitted on the university network or posted on university-owned computers except for the purposes of operational maintenance and security, but reserves the right to limit or remove access to its networks and to material posted on its computers, when applicable university policies or codes, contractual obligations, or state or federal laws are violated.

    17. Cornell Legal Music Program Formerly, the story revolves largely around DRM (digital rights management) and Competition with free P.S. UT System

    18. The Real Issue for Higher Education? Not peer to peer file sharing that constitutes infringement on the part of students, but how the law, technology, business models and social norms are impinging on higher education missions in teaching, research and outreach.

    19. The Issue in 2001: TEACH Act Technology Education and Copyright Harmonization Act Original concept Parity between face-to-face exceptions to copyright law and distance education Reality Extraordinary difficult with which to comply Course management systems More restrained? Better to rely on fair use options?

    20. Five years later The American Association of Publishers threatens to sue Cornell University for copyright infringement on its course management and e-reserves systems

    21. Changes in Course Management System We have changed some text for input of text on the course management system: Front page overview on copyright, links and references, forewarning of the good faith sign off at the end; Last sign off page where individual attests in good faith that there is no copyright infringement.

    22. Thoughts: Authentication will not protect institution against copyright infringement! If done to take advantage of the the TEACH Act, it is a misreading of it; Intent to harmonize face to face and distant, not to provide more exposure. Indeed, consensus is that it provides less than fair use and is complicated and difficult to implement. But this procedure does take the IT people out of the middle of the problem and your VP out of jail!

    23. E-Reserves Cornell content down 70% from last year! Question: Because that much was infringing in the past; or Because people are afraid, or can no longer be bothered to sort out the complexities of copyright law with their material to the degree required to assure good faith; or Because the copyright clearance/business model system for clearance is absent, cumbersome and inadequate to the task?

    24. Impact of Copyright Law on Higher Education

    25. Intellectual Property Policy within the Academy Example of a poor one, in need of revision: Whats wrong with it? encoded Example of a good one: Michigan Whats right with it? Substantial university resources

    26. Dream HE Copyright Policy Policy Statement: X complies with all copyright laws. Reason for Policy To comply with all copyright laws and to strive for the fullest expression of the institutions missions.

    27. Principles and Procedures DMCA Compliance Course Management and E-Reserves Systems Intellectual Property

    28. Why Is Academia Uniquely Positioned to Negotiate? Higher education is between malefactors on the left (everything should be for free) and the malefactors on the right (content ownersfair use) Higher education includes the whole spectrum of opinion about digital copyright Academia is in a unique position to speak to a sound social policy and legislative agenda on these matters. And assume a leadership position in American society and politics to do so.

    29. Conclusion Copyright specifically and intellectual property are among some of the most important policy issues of our day, both in terms of national and institutional policy. Higher education should champion the issue in order to maintain its missions and preserve its institutional autonomy nationally and abroad and to provide a beacon to the world on how to balance private property, open markets, availability of information and the free flow of ideas.

    30. Conclusion American higher education has the right motives: Free inquiry. Learning for learnings sake. Free expression. All values fundamental to American civil society and to higher education Role of the citizen in a democratic republic relies on access to information in the public domain. Through that information the citizen remains informed and educated and can therefore participate in the democracy responsibly. Return a sense of balance between incentive and innovation.