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Astronomy 113 Planetary Missions Tuesdays, Thursday 1 -4 pm Kendade Hall 305 Tom Burbine tburbine@mtholyoke PowerPoint Presentation
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Astronomy 113 Planetary Missions Tuesdays, Thursday 1 -4 pm Kendade Hall 305 Tom Burbine tburbine@mtholyoke

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Astronomy 113 Planetary Missions Tuesdays, Thursday 1 -4 pm Kendade Hall 305 Tom Burbine tburbine@mtholyoke

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  1. Astronomy 113Planetary MissionsTuesdays, Thursday 1 -4 pmKendade Hall 305Tom Burbinetburbine@mtholyoke.edu

  2. Focus of Class • Learn about missions to asteroids and comets • I will assume you currently know nothing about asteroids and meteorites • Things you need to learn about • Elements • Minerals • Spectroscopy • Spacecraft missions

  3. Website • www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/tburbine/ASTR113 • All presentations will be available on website immediately after class • So you don’t have to copy down everything I put up

  4. Grading • Problem Sets -33% • Quiz - 33% - • Class Presentation - 33% • Late Problem Sets will have 5 points deducted for every day they are late (unless this is your first class)

  5. A 92.50 - 100 • A- 89.50 – 92.49 • B+ 87.50 – 89.49 • B 82.50 – 87.49 • B- 79.50 – 82.49 • C+ 77.50 – 79.49 • C 72.50 – 77.49 • C- 69.50 – 72.49 • D+ 67.50 – 69.49 • D 59.50 – 67.49 • ? below 59.49

  6. Thursday Jan. 4 - • Tuesday Jan. 9 – • Thursday Jan. 11 - • Tuesday Jan. 16 – Quiz • Thursday Jan. 18 - Presentations • Tuesday Jan. 23 - Presentations

  7. Missions • Deep Impact – Comet Tempel 1 • NEAR-Shoemaker – 253 Mathilde, 433 Eros • Dawn – 4 Vesta, 1 Ceres • Rosetta – Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 2867 Steins, 21 Lutetia • Hayabusa – 25143 Itokawa • Stardust – 5535 Annefrank, Comet Wild-2 • Galileo - 951 Gaspra, 243 Ida, Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 • Giotto – Comet Halley

  8. Presentations • 8 Teams of ~5-6 members • Each team will present details on a particular mission • Each team will take particular roles on the team and make ~8-10 minute presentations on particular parts of the mission • References should be included

  9. Need to Setup Teams • Principal Investigator • Project Manager • Science Payload Manager • Project Scientist • Deputy Project Scientist

  10. Principal Investigator • Overall responsibility of all aspects of the mission • Student presentation • Planning of the mission • People involved • Goals of the mission • Details of mission • Landing Site (if a lander) • Will get 5 extra points for being in charge of the mission

  11. Project Manager • In charge of overall development and operation • Reports directly to the Principal Investigator and NASA on the status of the mission • Student presentation • Budget • Building of spacecraft • Launching of spacecraft • Problems

  12. Science Payload Manager • He leads the engineering implementation of the science instrumentation to optimize its reliability and performance within mass, power, and cost constraints. • Student presentation • Spacecraft Design • Instruments • What the instruments do

  13. Project Scientist • He serves as the Principal Investigator's "right hand man" in assuring that the spacecraft, mission design, and experiment plan answer all major science questions being investigated by the mission. • Student presentation • Science results

  14. Deputy Project Scientist • Assists the Project Scientist • Student presentation • More science results

  15. Today • 1-2 pm Introduction • 2-3 pm Meteorites • 3-4 pm Exercise • 5-10 minute break between classes

  16. Things you need to know because we will use the metric system • one kilometer is 5/8 of a mile • one meter is approximately a yard or 3 feet • 1 kg is 2.2 pounds • We will use the metric system in this class • Do you all remember the Mars Climate Orbiter?

  17. Mars Climate Orbiter • Some data was calculated on the ground in pound-seconds and reported that way to the navigation team, who were expecting the data in metric units (newton-seconds). • This data was used to calculated the effects of using thrusters on the spacecraft trajectory • This caused the spacecraft to miss its intended 140 - 150 km altitude above Mars during orbit insertion, instead entering the martian atmosphere at about 57 km.

  18. Metric System • Length: • 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters • 1 meter = 100 centimeters • 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters

  19. Metric System • Mass: • 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams • Time: • seconds

  20. Temperature • Temperature – average kinetic energy of particles • Higher temperature – more kinetic energy, particles moving faster • For examples, air molecules around you are moving at ~500 m/s

  21. Temperature scales • In America, we use Fahrenheit • Water freezes at 32 degrees F • Water boils at 212 degrees F • Everywhere else, they use Celsius • Water freezes at 0 degrees C • Water boils at 100 degrees C

  22. In Science • Temperature is measured in Kelvin • Zero Kelvin is absolute zero – nothing moves • Add 273.15 to the Celsius temperature to get the Kelvin temperature • 273.15 Kelvin = 0 degrees Celsius

  23. Scientific Notation • 10000 = 104 • 100000000 = 108 • 10000000000 = 1010 • 100000000000000000000 = 1020 • 0.001 = 10-3 • 0.0000001 = 10-7

  24. How do you write numbers? • 31700000 = 3.17 x 107 • 2770000 = 2.77 x 106 • 0.00056 = 5.6 x 10-4 • 0.0000078 = 7.8 x 10-6

  25. How do you do multiply? • 106 x 108 = 10(6+8) = 1014 • 10-5 x 103 = 10(-5+3) = 10-2 • (3 x 104 ) x (4 x 105) = 12 x 10(4+5) = 12 x 109 = 1.2 x 1010

  26. How do you divide? • 108/106 = 10(8-6) = 102 • 10-6/10-4 = 10(-6-(-4)) = 10-2 • (3 x 108)/(4 x 103) = ¾ x 10(8-3) = 0.75 x 105 = 7.5 x 104

  27. Atoms • Atoms are made up of 3 types of particles • Protons – positive charge (+1) • Electrons – negative charge (-1) • Neutrons – neutral charge (no charge) • Protons and Neutrons are found in the nucleus

  28. Elements • Different elements have different numbers of protons • The properties of an atom are a function of the electrical charge of its nucleus

  29. http://www.theodoregray.com/PeriodicTable/

  30. Charge • If an atom has the same number of electrons and protons, it has a neutral charge • More electrons than protons, negatively charged • More protons than electrons, positive charged • Neutrons have neutral charge so don’t affect the charge of an atom

  31. Definitions • Atomic Number – Number of protons • Atomic Mass – Number of protons and neutrons • U235 – atomic mass 92- atomic number • Isotopes – Same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

  32. Isotopes • Radioactive isotope - unstable atomic nucleus emit subatomic particles and/or photons • Decay is said to occur in the parent nucleus and produces a daughter nucleus. • Stable isotope – does not decay

  33. Mineral • A naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystal structure

  34. Halite (NaCl) • Red atoms – Na, White atoms - Cl

  35. Olivine • (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 • Fayalite (Fa) - Fe2SiO4 • Forsterite (Fo) - Mg2SiO4 • Solid Solution Series

  36. Pyroxenes • XY(Si, Al)2O6 • X can be Ca, Na, Fe+2, Mg, Zn, Mn, and Li • Y can be Cr, Al, Fe+3, Mg, Mn, Sc, Ti, V, and Fe+2 Augite Ferrosilite

  37. Important Types • Orthopyroxenes (Monoclinic) • Enstatite (Magnesium Silicate) • Ferrosilite (Iron Silicate) • Hypersthene (Magnesium Iron Silicate) • Clinopyroxenes (Orthorhombic) • Augite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate) • Diopside (Calcium Magnesium Silicate) • Hedenbergite (Calcium Iron Silicate) • Pigeonite (Calcium Magnesium Iron Silicate)

  38. Plagioclase • Solid Solution • NaAlSi3O8 -Albite • CaAl2Si2O8 – Anorthite • KAlSi3O8 - Orthoclase • Usually see striations

  39. FeNi • Kamacite – light – Ni-poor • Taenite – dark – Ni-rich

  40. Hydrated Silicates • Serpentine - (Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4 • (Fe,Mg)SiO3 + H2O  SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4

  41. Light • Light is a form of energy

  42. Light • These are all forms of light • Gamma rays • X-rays • Ultraviolet light • Visible light • Infrared light • Radio waves

  43. Light • Can act as a particle • Can also act as a wave